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The inquiries relating to population at the censuses from 1850 to 1890, inclusive, in accordance with the plan of individual enumeration. in vogue from and after 1850, are summarized as follows:
NUMBER OF INQUIRIES OR DETAILS RELATING TO POPULATION: 1850 TO 1890. (In 1850 and 1860 the inquiries related to free inhabitants only.)
Sick or temporarily disabled, etc
Soldier, sailor, or marine (United States or Confederate) in civil war,
Value of estate owned:
or widow of such person....
Value of real estate
Value of personal estate....
Ownership of farm and home, and if encumbered..
e Not including 4 inquiries on schedule for slaves not common to free inhabitants.
At the census of 1850 there were 18 inquiries or details required concerning population, and this number was not very much increased until the census of 1890 when there were 45 inquiries or details called for on the general population schedule. The various items of inquiry comprehended, and the detail in which the inquiries concerning them was made in each case, are summarized in the preceding table, showing, as far as possible, their nature and extent, and, in certain cases, their limited application at each of the census periods specified, without attempting to adhere strictly to the form in which the inquiry may have been made at each particular census. Under "color," for instance, at the censuses of 1850 and 1860, an inquiry was made, for each person enumerated, according to whether white, black, or mulatto, and this inquiry at the next two censuses was modified to distinguish Chinese and Indians, as well as whites, blacks, and mulattoes, but at the census of 1890 the schedule called for a further distribution of color according to whether black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, and, in addition, required a return of the Japanese as a separate element of the general population. Similarly, under "parentage," inquiries were made at the census of 1870 as to whether the father or mother of each person enumerated was of foreign birth, but at the censuses of 1880 and 1890 these inquiries were extended to include the place of birth of the father and mother, in each case, so as to show the number of persons of foreign parentage according to their respective nationalities. Again, the return of the profession, occupation, or trade was limited to free males over 15 years of age in 1850, to free white males and females over 15 years of age in 1860, and to all persons 10 years of age and over in 1870, 1880, and 1890. These three illustrations will suffice to show the general purpose of the table, and a more extended analysis does not seem necessary.
At the censuses of 1850 and 1860 there was a separate schedule provided for the enumeration of the slaves, in which inquiries were made as to their age, sex, color, and whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic, the same as for free inhabitants, to which were added four or five inquiries calling for special information pertaining to slaves. The inquiries relating to the slave inhabitants in 1850 and 1860 are summarized as follows:
The inquiries made on the population schedule used at the several censuses are, in the main, comprehended by the printed reports, but in certain cases no results have been printed, either on account of the insufficiency of the data secured or from the lack of time in which to complete the tabulations. This is notably the case with respect to the returns relating to "conjugal condition" and "months unemployed" at the census of 1880, for which no results were printed, and with respect to "foreign parentage," at the same census, for which partial results only are presented. At the census of 1890 an inquiry was made concerning all women who were or had been married as to the number of children born to them and the number of these children that were living at the time the census was taken, but no tabulation of these data was made, for want of time. The inquiry as to "relationship to head of family," was made in 1880 and 1890, mainly for purpose of more exact identification of each person enumerated, and no tabulation of the data secured was deemed necessary.
THE MENTALLY AND PHYSICALLY DEFECTIVE.
Prior to the census of 1880 the only inquiries that were made relative to the mentally and physically defective were contained on the population schedule, and, beginning with 1830, called for a return only of the number of the various classes of persons included under this designation, that is, the insane, feeble-minded, deaf and dumb, and blind. In 1880 and 1890 supplemental schedules were used, comprehending special inquiries as to the form of the mental or physical defect, its cause and duration, the number of relatives similarly afflicted, time spent in special institutions or schools, nature of support, etc., as shown by the following summary:
SUPPLEMENTAL INQUIRIES-INSANE: 1880 AND 1890.
Form of insanity.....
Age at first attack, number of attacks, and duration of present attack
SUPPLEMENTAL INQUIRIES-FEEBLE-MINDED, ETC.: 1880 AND 1890.
Age at which mental defect occurred, and supposed cause...
Instruction and length of time in schools for the feeble-minded, etc.
SUPPLEMENTAL INQUIRIES-DISEASED OR PHYSICALLY DEFECTIVE: 1890.
a Not including 3 inquiries as to name and identification on population schedule.
c Not including 3 inquiries as to name and identification on population schedule and 3 inquiries, duplicated from general population schedule, as to other mental and physical defects. d Not including 26 inquiries or details duplicated from general population schedule. e Not including 22 inquiries or details duplicated from general population schedule.
In addition to the inquiries which were made on the supplemental schedules relating to the insane and feeble-minded in 1880, and which were required to be filled by the census enumerators, a special return concerning these two classes was requested from practicing physicians throughout the country, covering, in the main, inquiries common to the general population and supplemental schedules but including special inquiries relative to one or two features not comprehended by the supplemental schedule used by the census enumerators. For the insane, the physician's return called for one additional inquiry only, relating to the number of insane relatives on the father's and mother's side, respectively, while for the feeble-minded a similar statement concerning relatives who were feeble-minded was requested, and, in addition, inquiries as to articulation and the use of the hands and feet; the number of cases reported upon by physicians being given, in each case, in the printed report.
At the census of 1890 special schedules were sent to institutions for the insane, to schools for the deaf, and to schools for the blind, calling for a statement, comprehending 54 details, in the case of institutions. for the insane, of the number of patients (by sex) admitted, discharged, transferred, died, and remaining, by years from 1881 to 1889, inclusive, and of the expenditures for the same years; and for schools for the deaf and blind, respectively, a statement comprehending 28 details, in each case, of the number of pupils (by sex) under instruction, by decades from 1840 to 1880 and by single years from 1880 to 1889, and of the expenditures for the same periods and years.
Supplemental inquiries were made at the census of 1890 concerning the diseased or physically defective, that is, those suffering from an acute or chronic disease and those that were crippled, maimed, or deformed, but the returns concerning this class of persons were so deficient that the results were not fully compiled and do not appear in the printed report.
CRIME, PAUPERISM, AND BENEVOLENCE.
A return of the number of paupers and criminals was called for on the general population schedules at the censuses of 1850 and 1860, and, in addition, four or five special inquiries concerning each of these two classes were made on the schedule for social statistics. These special inquiries were also made at the census of 1870, but the general population schedule contained no inquiry as to the number of such persons, as was the case at the two preceding censuses. The special inquiries relating to crime and pauperism at the censuses of 1850, 1860, and 1870 are summarized as follows:
At the censuses of 1880 and 1890 supplemental schedules were used by the census enumerators to make the return of the special information called for concerning paupers and criminals, and also with respect