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at the censuses from 1850 to 1880, inclusive, on each page of which the entries were made concerning from 40 to 50 persons. The adoption of the family schedule also permitted its use as a “prior” schedule, for which provision had been made in the laws governing the censuses of 1880 and 1890, wherever deemed advisable, but this was not attempted to any extent, even in the larger cities, principally for want of time in which to make the necessary preparations.
The supervisors of census, instead of receiving, as in 1880, the fixed sum of $500, without regard to the size of the district, were to be compensated, under the act of March 1, 1889, in addition to a fixed sum of $125, at the rate of $1 per 1,000 inhabitants in thickly settled districts and $1.40 per 1,000 inhabitants in sparsely settled districts; but no supervisor was to receive in the aggregate less than $500, which, by an act approved January 23, 1890, was increased to $1,000. Under this provision as amended all but four supervisors, those for the State of Massachusetts (a single district) and the cities of New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia, received the minimum sum of $1,000. Certain sums were also allowed to supervisors, in the discretion of the Superintendent of Census, for clerk hire and miscellaneous expenses.
The maximum and minimum rates of compensation, both per capita and per diem, to be paid enumerators at the census of 1890 were fixed by the law, but the Superintendent of Census was given discretionary powers, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, as to the rate to be paid in each district. In accordance with these provisions of the law, three per capita rates were established, as follows: For each living inhabitant, 2, 2), and 3 cents; for each farm, 15, 177, and 20 cents; and for each manufacturing establishment, 20, 25, and 30 cents. Uniform rates were allowed in per capita districts of 2 cents
. for each entry on the mortality schedule, 5 cents for each record on the special schedule for surviving Union soldiers, sailors, etc., and 5 cents for each entry on each of the supplemental schedules. Three per diem rates of $4, $5, and $6 were paid in certain districts where per capita rates were impracticable, on account of the difficulties of enumeration.
The whole number of enumerators who received compensation at the census of 1890 was 46,804, of whom 43,533 were regular enumerators, 2,226 were special enumerators for large institutions, etc., and 1,045 were enumerators appointed to reenumerate such districts or parts of districts in which the original work was improperly done. The enumerators who received per capita rates numbered 42,952, of whom 34,595 received the lowest rates, 5,247 the medium rates, and 3,110 the highest rates. Of the remaining 3,852 enumerators who were paid per diem rates, 2,203 received $t per day, 1,067 received $5 per day, and 582 received $6 per day. Of the enumerators who received per capita rates, 18.79 per cent earned less than $2 per day; 25.04 per cent from $2 to $2.50 per day; 22.71 per cent from $2.50 to $3 per day; 14.72 per cent from $3 to $3.50 per day; 8.97 per cent from $3.50 to $4 per day, and 9.77 per cent more than $4 per day.
The compensation of experts and special agents was not to exceed $6 per day and actual traveling expenses, as in 1880, but by subsequent legislation the Superintendent of Census was authorized to pay special agents in Alaska, in addition to their salaries, a per diem allowance, to cover all expenses of subsistence and transportation, not to exceed $7 per day, while other special agents were given a per diem allowance in lieu of subsistence of $3 per day.
The provision of the act of 1879 requiring each enumerator to make a duplicate of the name, age, sex, and color of all persons enumerated by him and to deposit the same in the office of the county clerk, and for which he was paid at the rate of 10 cents for each 100 names, was not repeated at the census of 1890, but a provision was substituted by which, upon the request of any municipal government, the Superintendent of Census was required to furnish such government with a copy of the names, age, sex, birthplace, and color or race, of all persons enumerated within the territory in the jurisdiction of such municipality, to be paid for by such municipal government at the rate of 25 cents for each 100 names.
The first returns of the enumerators were received in Washington during the week of June 14, and a few days later the work of counting the population was begun. The first announcement of population was made June 28, being that of the District of Columbia, and was followed by that of the city of New York on July 18, and by that of the city of Philadelphia on August 18. During the month of August the count for four States was completed and announced; during September for nine States and Territories, and during October for thirtyfive States and Territories. The completed results for the entire country, according to the first “rougb” count, were given to the public on October 28 and the “official” count, as finally determined, and upon which the new apportionment was based, on November 26, or in less than five months after the legal termination on June 30 of the time allowed for the enumeration. The last returns of the census of 1890 were received on November 10, having been delayed in the mails by being improperly addressed, being the returns of a single enumeration district which had to be retaken after the close of the regular work.
The first count of population was made direct from the schedules, by what is known as the family count, or the number of persons in each family enumerated. Two counts from the schedules for each enumeration district were made in each case by different clerks, and where differences appeared recounts were made. By this count was
obtained the population of States, Territories, counties, and all places of 8,000 inhabitants and upward. For the purpose of verifying the first or rough count, a second count, known as the dwelling-house count, was made, by means of which a new count of population was obtained, according to the number of persons returned in each dwelling house or place of abode visited by the census enumerators.
For the purpose of making the detailed tabulations concerning the population, the electric tabulating system of which Mr. Herman Hollerith is the inventor, was adopted, after a preliminary test of tabulating methods, and through the adoption of this system a much more complete presentation of the statistics of population was made than at any preceding census, including the statistics of conjugal condition, which were entirely omitted in 1880, although the inquiry was made on the population schedule, and a detailed statement of parentage by nationalities, for which only partial tabulations were made at that census. The Hollerith system of tabulation, involving the use of a punched card for each person returned in the census, to which was transferred by means of a mechanical punch all the various details as to color, sex, age, conjugal condition, place of birth, parentage, occupation, etc., and the subsequent counting of these cards by the electric tabulating machines, was used in compiling all the statistics relating to population and mortality, and to crime, pauperism, and benevolence.
The census office was organized in the latter part of April, 1889, and the force was steadily increased from 30 in May to over 100 in September, over 400 in January, 1890, and over 1,100 in May, just prior to the commencement of the enumeration, this large force being principally engaged in the work dependent upon several of the special subjects of investigation already in hand and also in the necessary work of preparation for the general enumeration. The force was increased to over 1,800 in July, 1890, over 2,200 in October, and so on until the maximum force of 3,143 was reached in May, 1891, practically one-half of whom were females. Appointments to the clerical force at the census of 1890 were not made under the civil-service rules and regulations, but applicants for clerical positions were examined in the census office by a board of examiners, in accordance with rules approved by the Secretary of the Interior, to whom the census act gave discretionary authority relative to all examinations for appointment and promotion. The work of the census was divided among twenty-five divisions, each devoted to some special branch or feature.
Mr. Porter served as Superintendent of Census until his resignation July 31, 1893, and the work was completed under the direction of the Commissioner of Labor, in accordance with the terms of the act of October 3, 1893, and under the provisions of which the Commissioner of Labor was designated by the President on October 5, 1893, to take charge of the work. By the deficiency act of March 2, 1895, the census office was abolished and the unfinished work transferred to the office of the Secretary of the Interior, but by the same act the Secretary was authorized to continue the services of the Commissioner of Labor in charge of the completion of the eleventh census. The census division, established March 4, 1895, in the office of the Secretary of the Interior, under the act of March 2, 1895, remained in force until July 1, 1897, from and after which date provision was made for a census clerk charged with the proper care and preservation of the census records. The Commissioner of Labor, however, remained in supervisory charge of the census work until October 5, 1897, when, at his own request, he was relieved by the Secretary of the Interior, serving from October 1, 1895, without compensation so far as his census duties were concerned.
The results of the eleventh census are contained in 25 quarto volumes, comprising 21,410 pages, besides a compendium in three parts, an abstract, and a statistical atlas.
The final volume of the report of the census of 1890, exclusive of the statistical atlas, was issued in 1897, the last plate proofs being returned to the printing office July 31 of that year, but this does not represent, in reality, the date when all the essential preliminary results of the eleventh census were given to the public. Following the practice established by General Walker in 1880 of issuing bulletins from time to time containing the preliminary results of the census, Superintendent Porter made a much more extended use of the census bulletin and by this means published, subject to final revision, all the principal results as soon as they became available. The first bulletins of preliminary results were issued in August, 1890, and the final bulletin was issued May 18, 1895, representing, in all, over 6,000 pages of matter which was published in this way. It can with reason be considered, then, that May 18, 1895, represents the date of sending the final general results of the eleventh census to the public—a fact that is most gratifying, when the magnitude of the work is considered.
The special enumeration of the names and service of the survivors of the war of the rebellion called for by the census act was made and considerable work was done toward the correction and classification of the results. No provision was made by Congress, however, for the printing of this huge directory of surviving veterans of the late war, which, if published, would occupy 8 large quarto volumes of 1,000 pages each, and the schedules were subsequently turned over, by direction of Congress, to the Bureau of Pensions. Incidental thereto, however, by means of a special inquiry on the population schedule, it was possible to show for all surviving veterans, Union and Confederate, at the time of the census, their approximate number, present ages and occupations, and general nativity and color, and these results are presented in part 2 of the report on population.
All of the volumes of the census report are profusely illustrated by maps and diagrams, as at the census of 1880, and the more important and valuable of them are reproduced in the statistical atlas, which Congress directed should be prepared, the same as for the census of 1870. There was no statistical atlas prepared as a government publication for the census of 1880, but one was published by Charles Scribner's Sons as a private enterprise.
The population of the United States on June 1, 1890, as shown by the general enumeration for all the States and organized Territories, was 62,622,250. Including 325,464 Indians and other persons in the Indian Territory and on Indian reservations and 32,052 persons in Alaska, specially enumerated under the law, the entire population of the country was 62,979,766.
. The total cost of the eleventh census was $11,547,127.13, and of this amount $260,553.10 was paid to supervisors as compensation and for clerk hire, etc.; $2,485,861.57 for the compensation of the census enumerators; approximately, $1,531,500 for printing, engraving, and binding, this sum being the total amount appropriated for that purpose, and $7,269,212.46 for all other expenses. Of the whole amount appropriated at the eleventh census, $1,330,000 was specifically provided for covering the cost of the special investigation relating to farms, homes, and mortgages, under the act of February 22, 1890, and was practically all expended for that purpose.
CONDITION OF CENSUS RECORDS.
By the organic law of 1790, under which the first enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States was made, it was provided that the original returns transmitted to the marshals by the assistants appointed by them to make the enumeration should be filed by said marshals with the clerks of their respective district courts for careful preservation, and this provision remained in force at the first four censuses. At the censuses of 1830 and 1840, however, the assistants were required to forward two copies of their returns to the marshals, one copy to be forwarded to the Secretary of State and one copy to be filed with the clerks of the district or superior courts. It was also provided by the resolution of May 28, 1830, that the original returns filed in the offices of the clerks of the several district and superior courts, under the provisions of the law governing the first four censuses, should be transmitted to the Secretary of State, and these returns, together with the copies of the returns of the censuses of 1830 and 1840, were transferred to the custody of the Department of the the Interior upon its organization in 1849, the work of the census being made a function of that Department. At the censuses of 1850, 1860, and 1870, a copy of the returns of the assistant marshal was