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other department or officer of the Government for information pertaining to the enumeration required by the census act.

Provision was also made for an interdecennial census, to be taken by any State or Territory, through its duly appointed officers or agents, during the two months beginning with the first Monday in June of the year which is the mean between the decennial censuses of the United States, according to schedules and forms similar in all respects to those used in the United States census, and upon a full and authentic copy of said census being deposited with the Secretary of the Interior on or before the 1st of September following, such State or Territory was to receive, upon the requisition of the governor thereof, a sum equal to 50 per cent of the amount paid to all supervisors and actual enumerators within such State or Territory at the United States census next preceding, increased by one-half the percentage of gain in population in such State or Territory between the two United States censuses next preceding. This provision of law was only applicable to the period between 1880 and 1890, not being reenacted in the act governing the eleventh census, and, in accordance with its requirements, censuses were taken in 1885 in the States of Florida, Nebraska, and Colorado, and in the Territories of New Mexico and Dakota, and the copies required under the act were filed in the office of the Secretary of the Interior, but no publication of the returns was made so far as the United States Government was concerned.(a)

Gen. Francis A. Walker was appointed Superintendent of Census April 1, 1879, by the President, under the provisions of the act of March 3, 1879, and immediately began the organization of the census office by the appointment as chief clerk of Col. Charles W. Seaton, a chief of division at the census of 1870 and the superintendent of the New York State census of 1875.

During the period preceding the date of the enumeration (June 1, 1880) the work of the census office consisted of the necessary preparations for the general enumeration and of the collection of certain classes of statistics which, under the law, were withdrawn from the enumerators, and for this service clerical appointments were made at successive dates, as the exigencies of the service required. There were 44 employees in the census office on the 1st of December, 1879, 121 on the 1st of May, 1880, and 245 on the 1st of June, 1880, and this number had increased to 448 on August 1, to 737 on September 1, and to 1,084 on December 1. The maximum of clerical force was reached on the 15th of March, 1881, when the number of employees of all grades was 1,495.

a Several other States took a census in 1885, notably Massachusetts, Rhode Island, District of Columbia, Kansas, Oregon, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1884, but under the provisions of State laws and wholly at the expense of the State.


The compilation of the results concerning the population was made on the tallying machines invented by Colonel Seaton and used for a limited period at the census of 1870, and for which he was paid the sum of $15,000, by act of June 10, 1872, in full of all claims against the Government for their use at the ninth or any subsequent


By the exhaustion of the census appropriations during the first half of 1881, the work of compiling the census returns had to be carried on, by arrangement with the Secretary of the Interior, by a volunteer force of about 700 clerks until after the necessary appropriations were made in January, 1882, for the payment of this force for voluntary services rendered, without claim against the Government, and for the continuation of the work.

General Walker resigned as Superintendent of Census November 3, 1881, to accept the position of president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and was succeeded by Col. Charles W. Seaton, the chief clerk of the office, who entered upon his duties November 4, 1881, and served until March 3, 1885, when the census office was abolished. For the completion of the unfinished work of the tenth census, a census division was then established in the office of the Secretary of the Interior, and upon its substantial completion the census division was done away with, and a census clerk appointed July 1, 1886, who remained in charge of the census records until the or ganization of the census office for the purposes of the eleventh census in April, 1889.

The printed reports of the census of 1880 cover a wide range of subjects and occupy 22 large quarto volumes, aggregating 19,305 pages, besides a compendium, in two parts, comprising a total of 1,898 pages.

The publication of these reports was not completed until late in 1888, while for two or three subjects, such as churches, educational institutions, libraries, and insurance, for which much of the material was collected and partly compiled, no report was ever published, with the exception of a few general tables relating to insurance and public schools contained in Part 2 of the Compendium. The statistics of the fisheries, which were collected in cooperation with the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, were not published as a part of the census report, but were included in a series of special reports published by the Commissioner of Fisheries.

The various volumes of the census report for 1880 were illustrated by maps and diagrams, as at the census of 1870, but the cartographic method of presentation was very much amplified and extended at the census of 1880.

The census of 1880, considered with respect to the number and variety of the subjects which were investigated, and the completeness of detail with which the results were presented, marks the beginning of the third era in census taking in this country. The three censuses taken under the law of 1850, although very decided improvements over the earlier enumerations in point of number of details covered, were, nevertheless, deficient in many respects, and, owing to the manner in which the data were collected by officers appointed for a different purpose, and in many respects beyond the jurisdiction and control of the department having the supervision of the census, the results were neither complete nor reliable, and, aside from the mere numbers of the population, did not represent true conditions at each census period. The census of 1880 was not without its faults, it is true, but the change in the methods of supervising and collecting the data and the employment of experts in making the special investigations resulted in much better returns and enabled the census officials to give to the country more accurate statements, presented in great detail, concerning its population, wealth, industries, and varied resources.

The total population of the United States at the census of 1880 was 50,155,783.

The total cost of the tenth census was $5,790,678.40, of which $134,489.40 was paid to the supervisors as compensation and for clerk hire and miscellaneous expenses; $2,095,362.02 to the enumerators; $815,534.38 for printing, engraving, and binding, and $2,745,292.60 for all other expenses, including the cost of special agents' work, salaries of officers and employees at Washington, and miscellaneous and contingent expenses.


The eleventh census was taken under the provisions of the act of March 1, 1889, which was modeled upon the act which governed the work of the census of 1880. It was not contemplated originally to make the census of 1890 quite so comprehensive as its predecessor, but, in effect, the same schedules of inquiries were authorized and, in addition, the Superintendent of Census was directed, under the authority of the Secretary of the Interior, to cause an enumeration to be made, by means of a special schedule, of the name, organizations served in, and length of service of surviving Union soldiers, sailors, and marines who had served in the war of the rebellion, and the widows of such as had died; to ascertain, by an inquiry on the population schedule, the number of negroes, mulattoes, quadroons, and octoroons, and, at the time of the general enumeration or prior thereto, as the Secretary of the Interior might determine, to collect the statistics of and relating to the recorded indebtedness of private corporations and individuals, and make report thereon to Congress. The act of February 22, 1890, also made it the duty of the Superintendent of Census to ascertain the number of persons who live on and cultivate their own farms, the number who live in their own homes, the number who hire their farms and homes, the number of farms and homes which are under mortgage, the amount of mortgage debt, the value of the property mortgaged, and whether such farms and homes have been mortgaged for the whole or part of the purchase money for the same or for other purposes, and the rates of interest paid upon mortgage loans; and for the accomplishment of this purpose, an appropriation of $1,000,000 was made, in addition to the regular census appropriations. The number of farms and homes owned and hired, and of those owned the number free and mortgaged were obtained by the addition of five inquiries on the population schedule, while the supplemental information as to the value of the property so mortgaged, the amount of the mortgage debt, and the object for which the debt was incurred, was obtained by correspondence and special agents. The information concerning the recorded indebtedness of private corporations and individuals was abstracted by special agents from the public records in every county in the United States,

Under the provisions of the act of March 1, 1889, Hon. Robert P. Porter was appointed by the President April 17, 1889, as Superintendent of Census at an annual salary of $6,000, instead of $5,000, as in 1880. Mr. Porter qualified three days later and entered at once upon the preliminary work necessary to the enumeration, which began on the first Monday in June, 1890, the 1st day of June falling on Sunday, and which was conducted in the same manner and under the same general conditions as in 1880. There were 175 supervisors in 1890 instead of 150 as in 1880, and one or more were appointed in each State or Territory, exclusive of Alaska and the Indian Territory. Each subdivision assigned to an enumerator was not to exceed 4,000 inhabitants, as near as may be, according to estimates based upon the tenth census, and the enumeration was to be completed in two weeks in cities having over 10,000 inhabitants under the census of 1880 and in one month in all other subdivisions. Each enumerator, having been duly commissioned and qualified by his oath of office, was required to obtain all the information prescribed by the census act by a personal

a visit to each dwelling house and to each family, and in the absence of the head of the family or other competent person to procure the information from the person or persons living nearest to such absent person or family. The same penalties were provided as in 1880 for refusal to furnish information and for neglect to perform their duties or willful wrongdoing on the part of supervisors and enumerators. Daily reports were required from each enumerator, and he was also required to fill out and return a certificate of completion of the enumeration of his district the same as in 1880.

The schedules of inquiry intrusted to the census enumerators consisted of the four general schedules relating to population, agriculture, manufactures, and mortality, eight supplemental schedules calling for special information concerning the defective, dependent, and delinquent classes, and the special schedule relating to Union survivors of the war of the rebellion. These schedules were sent out in bulk from the census office to the supervisors, and were distributed by the supervisors to the enumerators. Over 25,000,000 schedules, weighing more than 300 tons, were needed to supply the enumerators, and these schedules, from two-thirds to three-fourths of which came back in the form of completed returns, were carried by registered mail from the census office, through the supervisors, to the enumerators, and were returned by them to the supervisors and by the supervisors to the census office, without the loss of a single package.

As in 1880, the mortality schedule was withdrawn in certain States and cities, and the information obtained from the official registration records, while in the principal manufacturing centers the schedules of manufactures were also withdrawn and the statistics collected by special agents appointed for each city, town, or place.

The mortality schedules at the census of 1890 were wholly withdrawn from the enumerators and a copy made of the registration record in the States of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware, in 83 cities outside of these States, and in the District of Columbia. Of the whole number of deaths reported in 1890 (875,521), very nearly one-half (409,125), as against one-fourth in 1880, were obtained from the registration records of these States and cities, representing a population of 19,659,440, or more than three-tenths of the entire population of the country in 1890, as against one-sixth in 1880.

The schedules of manufactures were withdrawn in 1890 in 1,042 important manufacturing centers as against 279 in 1880, and the duty of collecting the statistics charged upon special agents.

The law further provided, as in 1880, for the employment of experts and special agents in making a special enumeration of all Indians living within the jurisdiction of the United States, a separate census of the population and resources of Alaska, and in obtaining complete statistics concerning mines and mining, the fisheries, churches, education, insurance, transportation, and wealth, debt, and taxation, the schedule for social statistics being withdrawn, as in 1880, from the general enumerators.

The schedules used by the enumerators at the census of 1890 were much smaller in size than those used in 1880, being about 15 by 11 inches, with the exception of the schedules of manufactures, which were 9 by 114 inches. Furthermore, a family schedule was adopted for the enumeration of the population in 1890, that is, a separate schedule for each family enumerated, instead of the schedule in use

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