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The volume on agriculture contains a table, omitted from the volume on population, giving the number of slaveholders and slaves in 1860 by counties and a recapitulation by States and Territories, with a similar recapitulation by States and Territories for 1850. The final volume of this report, which is devoted to mortality and miscellaneous statistics, contains, in addition to mortality statistics, those relating to religion, education, libraries, schools, colleges, etc., real and personal estate, the public press, pauperism, crime, wages, families and free population, banks and insurance, railroads, canal and river improvements, and the fisheries, and a preliminary chapter of “observations
, on the census in the United States and foreign countries.
The total population of the United States at the census of 1860 was 31,443,321.
The total amount appropriated and expended for the eighth census was $1,969,376.99, of which, approximately, $1,329,749.07 was paid to marshals and assistants, and to special agents in Territories for enumerating the inhabitants, etc.; but some of the claims of marshals and assistants in the South were not finally adjusted, on account of conditions arising from the civil war, until several years after the service was rendered.
THE NINTH CENSUS: 1870.
The ninth census was taken in accordance with the terms of the act of May 23, 1850, although an effort was made to have new legislation effected for the government of its operations. While the census of 1850 was a decided improvement over its predecessors, and the census of 1860 was, as stated by a Congressional committee, “the most complete census that any nation has ever had,” it was recognized that the law of 1850 was entirely inadequate to meet the changed conditions under which the census of 1870 would have to be taken. A special committee of the House of Representatives, in the second session of the Forty-first Congress, was, therefore, charged with the duty of considering the census needs, and required to report as to what legislation, if any, was essential to the proper taking of the ninth census. This special committee, under the able leadership of General Garfield, made a careful study of census methods, calling to their counsels many experts, including Gen. Francis A. Walker and Dr. Edward Jarvis, and the results of their deliberations were presented in an extended report, in which a comprehensive plan for taking the ninth census was submitted in the form of a bill, accompanied by an exhaustive exposition of the entire subject of the census here and abroad. This report (a) was made January 18, 1870, and the bill was passed by the House of Representatives, but was defeated in the Senate, thereby compelling the census of 1870 to be taken under the antiquated law of
a House Reports, Forty-first Congress, second session, Vol. I, No. 3.
1850, which by its own provisions was made applicable thereto after January 1, 1870, but the operation of which, by the resolution of December 22, 1869, had been suspended and postponed until February 1, 1870, pending action by Congress. Although the painstaking work of this committee came to naught, so far as the ninth census was concerned, it was not wholly lost, but formed the ground work of the plan which was embodied in the law governing the work of the tenth census.
The census of 1870, therefore, was carried on under the law of 1850, but several additions and alterations were made in the schedules of inquiry. Gen. Francis A. Walker, at that time the chief of the bureau of statistics in the Treasury Department, was appointed February 7, 1870, by the Secretary of the Interior, as Superintendent of the Ninth Census, and under his skillful guidance and direction the best census that it was possible to take under the provisions of the existing census law was brought to its completion early in 1873, and the printed results given to the public at an earlier date than ever before. The only legislation that was had in 1870–71 which affected the conduct of the census work was that of the act of May 6, 1870, the resolution of June 9, 1870, and section 8 of the act of March 3, 1871. The act of May 6, 1870, is as follows:
That the time allowed for transmitting the said copy of the returns of the assistant marshals to the census office is hereby further limited so that the returns of population upon schedule numbered one in the act of May twenty-third, eighteen hundred and fifty, shall be sent to that office on or before the tenth day of September next, and complete returns upon all the schedules annexed to and made a part of that act, excepting upon the schedule therein designated as number two, which schedule is hereby revoked, canceled, and declared to be no longer a part of said act, shall be forwarded to the census office before the first day of October following: Provided, That the Secretary of the Interior shall be authorized to extend the time allowed for returns on the schedules other than those of population in any case where it shall appear to him to be necessary: Provided further, That whenever, from the loss or destruction of returns, or from causes beyond the control of the officers charged with the enumeration, it shall be shown to be impracticable to comply with the requirements of this section, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to extend the time allowed for rendering returns of population, not beyond the first day of October next.
SEC. 2. That the penalty provided in the fifteenth section of said act of May twenty-third, eighteen hundred and fifty, shall apply to any refusal whatever to answer either of the inquiries authorized by said act.
SEC. 3. That each assistant marshal or agent shall be paid for making out and returning complete copies of the original census returns, as required in the eleventh section of the act, to which this is a supplement, eight cents for each page of the two copies of the original census returns required by the said eleventh section.
SEC. 4. That the oath to be taken by assistant marshals employed to take the census shall be the oath required by the act of eighteen hundred and fifty, of which this is an amendment.
By the resolution of June 9, 1870, the Secretary of the Interior was authorized to increase the compensation of assistant marshals whenever, in his judgment, such increase should be necessary, but in no case to exceed 50 per cent of the amount now allowed by law, and to be made only “when by reason of the sparseness of the population the compensation heretofore allowed by law is not sufficient,” and it was further stipulated that the entire compensation should not be more than $8 per day, exclusive of mileage, for the time actually employed. This increased compensation was only applicable to sparsely settled districts, however, but by section 8 of the act of March 3, 1871 (as modified by section 8 of the act of April 20, 1871), this limitation was removed, and the Secretary of the Interior given authority to allow such increased compensation, without regard to the density of population, whenever such increase was deemed by him to be necessary.
The schedules of inquiry were remodeled at this census, in the sense that the inquiries were made more explicit in many cases, and by the omission of the former slave schedule several additional inquiries were made possible. These changes and additions may be briefly summarized.
Schedule No. 1, for the enumeration of population, contained five additional inquiries, two relating to parentage, that is, of persons having either a father or mother of foreign birth; two inquiries, under the requirements of the fourteenth amendment, to determine the number of male citizens of the United States of 21 years of age and upward, and the number of such citizens whose right to vote is denied or abridged on other grounds than rebellion or other crime; and an inquiry as to the month of birth, for each person born within the year. The month was also called for in the inquiry relating to persons married within the year, and an extension was made in the inquiry respecting "color" so as to distinguish the Chinese and Indians among the general population. The age limitation of 15 years was also removed from the inquiry concerning the profession, occupation, or trade, while the inquiry relating to illiterate persons was divided to show the number unable to read and the number unable to write; and by the instructions to assistant marshals these two inquiries were made to apply to all persons 10 years of age and over. The inquiry on the population schedule as to whether a "pauper” or “convict” was also omitted as being offensive and superfluous, and the return for these two classes confined to the schedule calling for social statistics.
Schedule No. 2, relating to persons who died during the year, was modified by the addition of the inquiry as to parentage and the extension of the inquiry respecting color to include Chinese and Indians, as in the population schedule, and by the omission of the inquiry as to whether “free or slave,” which was no longer necessary, and the inquiry as to “number of days ill,” which was deemed of no importance.
Schedule No. 3, relating to agriculture, contained a division of the inquiry concerning unimproved land so as to show the “acres of woodland” and “acres of unimproved land” separately; a subdivision of the inquiry concerning the quantity of wheat produced into “bushels of spring wheat” and “bushels of winter wheat;” an extension of the inquiry concerning the value of animals slaughtered to include, in addition, those sold for slaughter; the substitution of a single inquiry as to “tons of hemp," instead of a separate return for dew-rotted, waterrotted, and other prepared hemp, as in 1860; and the addition of inquiries as to the total amount of wages paid during the year (including the value of board), number of gallons of milk sold, value of forest products, and estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock.
Schedule No. 4, relating to products of industry, subdivided the inquiry concerning motive power and machinery so as to show specifically the kind of motive power, number of horsepower (if steam or water), and the number and kind of machines used; while the inquiry concerning the average number of hands employed was also made to cover males above 16 years, females above 15 years, and children and youth, instead of the number of males and of females, as formerly. The inquiries as to the average monthly cost of male and of female labor were abandoned and an inquiry substituted as to the total amount paid in wages during the year, and a new inquiry added to show the number of months in active operation, reducing part time to full time.
Schedule No. 5, relating to social statistics, omitted the inquiries as to “seasons and crops” and substituted therefor an inquiry concerning the bonded and other debt of counties and of cities, towns, townships, parishes, and boroughs. The inquiries under “pauperism and crime” as to the number of native paupers and criminals on June 1, respec· tively, were extended to distinguish native whites and native blacks; under “religion,” the ambiguous term of “number of churches” was expanded to two inquiries, number of church organizations and number of church edifices; under “education,” inquiries as to the number of teachers and of pupils were subdivided to show, in each case, the number of males and of females, while under the three heads of “schools,” “libraries," and “taxation," the kinds of schools, libraries, and taxes were classified on the schedules, to avoid confusion and error in the returns.
The enumeration of inhabitants at this census, which by law was commenced June 1, 1870, was substantially completed by the 9th of January, 1871, at which date returns for all but about:225,000 persons, out of a total of 38,500,000 people, had been received; but the entire work of enumeration was not completed until August 23, 1871, seven and a half months later, when the last return representing 30+ persons was received. The period contemplated by the act of May 6, 1870, for
the completion of the census was, in round numbers, one hundred days, but the delays beyond that limit were unavoidable, under the existing census machinery, arising from the ineradicable defects of the act of 1850, under which, with slight modifications, the census was taken.
In the compilation of the results of this census, as stated by Superintendent Walker, every effort was made to adhere to the forms used in preceding census publications, so far as possible, in order to make comparison practicable, rejecting those classifications only which were thought to be essentially vicious and introducing new divisions or new groupings to overcome the inadequacies of former presentations, but retaining the old so far as to admit of comparisons. The scope of the report was further enlarged, for the purpose of more completely presenting the information obtained in the enumeration, and, in addition, the results of the preceding censuses with respect to the subdivision of the population according to color were republished, after careful revision, by States and counties, in tables 1 and 2 of the volume relating to population-a necessity due not only to the scarcity of the published volumes of the earlier censuses but also on account of the inaccuracies which existed in these official publications. In the comparative tables of population from 1790 to 1870, given in the Report of the Ninth Census, all the variations from former official totals are set forth in detail and fully explained.
The census office was organized on the 7th of February, 1870, by the appointment of General Walker as Superintendent, as already stated, and the clerical force was raised under a system of examinations, which began February 18, 1870, and were continued from time to time, and for which a total of 719 persons presented themselves. Of
a this number, 401 passed upon their first examination, while of 64 of those who failed on the first trial and were allowed a second examination 37 were successful. General Walker served as Superintendent of the Census until November 21, 1871, when he was made Commissioner of Indian Affairs, remaining, however, in charge of the census as acting superintendent, by request of the Secretary of the Interior, but receiv-' ing only the compensation attached to the office of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Upon his resignation of this office January 31, 1873, to accept a position in private life, he was requested by the Secretary of the Interior to continue in charge of matters relating to the census, so that the continuity of plan and procedure might not be unnecessarily interrupted, and, for that purpose, received an appointment as Superintendent of the Census, without salary, and remained in charge until his appointment by the President April 1, 1879, as Superintendent of the Tenth Census, under the new law of March 3, 1879. The work of compiling the results of the census, for a portion of which a tallying machine, invented by Col. Charles W. Seaton, was used with good results, was completed in the latter part of the year 1872, and the