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and that he should cause 1,500 copies of said digest to be printed, subject to the disposition of Congress.

The questions to be asked concerning each manufacturing establishment were 14 in number, and related to the nature and names of the articles manufactured; market values of the articles annually manufactured; kind, quantity, and cost of raw materials annually consumed; the number of men, women, and boys and girls employed; the whole quantity and kind of machinery, and the quantity of machinery in operation; amount of capital invested; amount paid annually in wages; ; amount of the contingent expenses, and general observations.

The report of the census of population consisted of a folio of 160 pages, while that containing the digest of the accounts of manufacturing establishments consisted of a folio of 100 pages.

The presentation of the details of age and sex for each class of the population enumerated is given for the several cities and towns in each county in the northern and eastern districts as at the preceding censuses, but in many districts there is no recapitulation by counties, while in two districts (New Hampshire and southern New York) the summary by counties is given, but that for the entire district, which is common to the other districts, is omitted. In the southern districts the presentation is confined to counties usually, but in Maryland it is made by counties and election districts, in Delaware by hundreds, and in South Carolina by districts only.

The report on manufactures presents the results concerning manufacturing establishments, so far as returned in each district and territory, by counties, but the results are not summarized for each district, nor does the report contain any aggregate statement for the entire country-an omission due, doubtless, to the incompleteness of the returns, arising partly from the insufficient compensation allowed for the collection of the returns and partly from the neglect or refusal of manufacturers to supply the necessary information.

The report on population, also, contains, for the first time, copies of the instructions and forms prepared by the Secretary of State for the use of the marshals and assistants in their work.

In making the distribution of the reports the Secretary of State was authorized by the resolution of February 4, 1822, to send one copy to each of the colleges and universities of the United States, as well as to the members of Congress, officers of the Government, and judges of the United States courts.

The total population of the United States in 1820 was 9,633,822.

The total cost of the fourth census was $208,525.99, subdivided as follows: For enumerating the inhabitants, $195,357.56; for printing, $11,014.35; for postage, $1,229.08; for temporary clerk hire at the Department of State, $925. (a)

a Report of Seventh Census, viii.


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The census in 1830 was also taken under the direction of the Secretary of State, but, prior to the passage of the census act, President Adams, in his fourth annual message to Congress, dated December 28, 1828, (a) suggested the desirability of commencing the enumeration from an earlier period of the year than the 1st of August, the most favorable season being the spring, and, also, that the columns of age, hitherto confined to a few periods, should be extended, commencing from infancy, in intervals of ten years, to the utmost boundaries of life. Changes embodying these suggestions were made in the act of March 23, 1830, which provided for taking the fifth census. Under the provisions of this act the marshals were directed to appoint one or more assistants in each county and city, and to give to each assistant a certain division, which should not consist, in any case, of more than one county, but could include one or more towns, townships, wards, hundreds, precincts, or parishes, which should be plainly and dis tinctly bounded. In case a part of a county should lie in each of two districts, where a State was divided, it was adjudged to belong to the district in which the court-house was located, the same as in 1820.

The enumeration was to be made by an actual inquiry by the marshals or assistants at every dwelling house, or, as the law now stated, by “personal” inquiry of the head of every family, and was to commence on the 1st day of June (instead of the first Monday in August, as heretofore) and to be completed within six calendar months thereafter. This change made the period from the first Monday in August, 1820, to June 1, 1830, nine years and ten months only, instead of the full ten years, and gave a slightly less percentage of increase than it would have been for the full decade. The assistants were required within six months, or on or before December 1, 1830, to transmit to the marshals of their respective districts or territories two copies of their return, instead of one, as heretofore, while the marshals were directed by the act to file one copy of these returns, together with an attested copy of the return which they were required to make to the Secretary of State, with the clerks of the courts of their respective districts or territories, and to transmit the other copy of the returns of their assistants, and also the aggregate amount of each description of persons within their respective districts or territories, on or before February 1, 1831, to the Secretary of State. It was found necessary, however, to extend the time for the completion of the work, and by the act of February 3, 1831, the assistants were given until June 1 and the marshals until August 1, 1831, or a total period of fourteen months from the commencement of the enumeration.

a Messages and Papers of the Presidents, Vol. 2, p. 420.

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The assistants were required to take an oath or affirmation before entering upon their work, and also upon its completion, as to the making of the enumeration by actual inquiry, and they were subject to the same penalties as were prescribed at the census of 1820. But in the case of the marshals it was provided, in addition to the penalties prescribed by the law of 1820, "that, if any marshal, in any district

, within the United States or Territories, shall, directly or indirectly, ask, demand, or receive, or contract to receive, of any assistants to be appointed by him under this act, any fee, reward, or compensation for the appointment of such assistant to discharge the duties required of such assistant under this act, or shall retain from such assistant any portion of the compensation allowed to the assistant by this act, the said marshal shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor in office, and shall forfeit and pay the amount of five hundred dollars for each offense, to be recovered by suit or indictment in any circuit or district court of the United States or the Territories thereof, one-half to the use of the Government and the other half to the informer; and all contracts which may be made in violation of this law shall be void, and all sums of money or property paid may be recovered back by the party paying the same, in any court having jurisdiction of the same.”

.' The inquiries at this census related to population only, the provision for the collection of industrial statistics being omitted, and for the first time a printed schedule of uniform size was used. This schedule, which was about 18 inches wide by 15 inches long, had the inquiries printed at the heads of the columns and provided spaces for the entry of the returns for 28 families to each page. It called for a division of the free white population of each sex according to the number under 5 years of age, 5 to 10, 10 to 15, 15 to 20, 20 to 30, 30 to 40, 40 to 50, 50 to 60, 60 to 70, 70 to 80, 80 to 90, 90 to 100, and 100 years and upward; a classification of slaves and free colored persons, respectively, according to the number of each sex under 10 years of age, 10 to 24, 24 to 36, 36 to 55, 55 to 100, and 100 years and upward; the number of white persons and of “slaves and colored persons,” included in the foregoing classifications, under 14 years of age, 14 and under 25, and 25 years and upward, respectively, who were deaf and dumb, but without distinction of sex in either case, and also the number of each of the two classes named who were blind, but without distinction of sex or age; and a statement, finally, for white persons only, of the number who were aliens, that is, foreigners not naturalized, the same as in 1820.

The compensation of assistants, of whom there were approximately 1,519, was increased at this census to $1.25 for every 100 persons returned in the country, and in cities and towns containing more than 3,000 inhabitants at the rate of $1.25 per 100 up to 3,000 persons and at the rate of $1.25 for every 300 persons over 3,000 residing in such each copy.

cities or towns; and in those districts where the rate was increased, with the approbation of the judges, it was not to exceed $1.75 for every 50 persons returned. The allowance to each assistant for making the two copies of their return to be set up at two of the most public places within their district was also increased from $2 to $5 for

A further allowance was also made in certain cases where the superficial content of any county or parish exceeded 20 miles square, and the number of inhabitants was not more than 3,000, but this allowance was not to exceed, in any case, $4 for every 50 persons returned, and also when any county or parish exceeded 40 miles square, and the population was not more than 3,000, a like allowance was to be made, but not to exceed $6 for every 50 persons returned. There were 36 districts and territories to be enumerated in 1830, and, with few exceptions, the compensation of the marshals was increased, $50 in most cases, and, in a few cases, $100, the highest amount paid being $400, that to the marshal of the district of Ohio, and the lowest amount $100, that to the marshal of the District of Columbia and to each of the four marshals in the Territory of Florida. The marshals were further allowed by the act of 1830 the amount of postage paid by them in connection with their duties under said act, and it was also provided by the act of April 30, 1830, that papers relating to the census should be transmitted by mail without regard to the weight of the package.

As in 1820, the Secretary of State was directed to print the returns for the use of the Congress, 3,000 copies of the returns of the fifth census being authorized, and in their distribution it was provided that the several colleges and incorporated historical societies and athenæums should each receive one copy.

By the terms of the act governing the taking of the census of 1830, the President was authorized to have made a careful revision of the statements heretofore transmitted to Congress of all former enumerations of the population of the United States and their Territories, and to cause an abstract of the aggregate amount of population in each State and Territory to be printed by the printer to Congress (designating the number of inhabitants of each description by counties or parishes) to the number of two thousand copies," and for which the sum of $2,000 was appropriated.

This revision was not carefully made, however, and General Walker, the Superintendent of the ninth and tenth censuses, says: “So hastily and heedlessly was this work performed that it must be regarded as absolutely valueless. Many pages of that republication would, by merely noting the necessary corrections, be almost as much disfigured as the worst proof of statistical matter ever seen in a printing house.” (a)


a Report on Population and Social Statistics, Ninth Census, xliv.

Under the provisions of the act of March 23, 1830, the clerks of the district and superior courts were required, within thirty days after the original returns of the assistants had been laid before the grand juries for their inspection, to transmit and deliver all such original returns so filed to the Department of State; but this provision was repealed later by the second section of the act of February 3, 1831.

By the terms of the resolution of May 28, 1830, the said clerks were further directed to transmit to the Secretary of State the several returns of the enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States, filed in their respective offices by direction of the several acts providing for the first four censuses or enumerations.

By the third section of the act of February 3, 1831, it was made the duty of the Secretary of State “to note all the clerical errors in the returns of the marshals and assistants, whether in the additions, classification of inhabitants, or otherwise, and cause said notes to be printed, with the aggregate returns of the marshals, for the use of Congress.

In the revision of the returns of the fifth census, 43 clerks were temporarily employed in the office of the Secretary of State.

The printed results of the fifth census are contained in a large folio volume of 163 pages; but the report was so badly printed that it was republished the same year by direction of Congress under the imme diate supervision of the Secretary of State. The two reports were bound together in one volume, and were preceded by a statement of the population of the several districts of the United States at the cen suses of 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, by counties, followed by a recapitulation by districts. The volume also contains copies of the circulars sent to the marshals by the Secretary of State concerning their duties under the census act, and the instructions and forms to be used in the enumeration.

The results of the fifth census or enumeration are presented, as heretofore, by counties and towns in the northern districts, and by counties only in the southern districts; and in the republished returns some attempt at uniformity of presentation is made by supplying the recapitulations by counties, which were omitted in the first publication in many of the northern districts.

The total population of the United States in 1830 was 12,866,020, including 5,318 persons on public ships in the service of the United States, not credited to any State or Territory.

The total cost of the fifth census was $378,545.13, subdivided as follows: For enumerating the inhabitants, $322,343; for printing, $18,473.32; for postage, $7,097.79; for temporary clerk hire at the Department of State, $11,997.33; for contingent and incidental expenses, including stationery, office furniture, laborers, freight, transportation, binding, etc., $18,633.69. (a)

a Report of Seventh Census, viii.

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