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attempt was made, for the first time, to gather industrial statistics. This was undertaken in accordance with the terms of the act of May 1, 1810, which, after making (in section 1) certain changes in the form of the oath or affirmation required of marshals, secretaries, and assistants, provided in section 2 as follows:
That it shall be the duty of the several marshals, secretaries, and their assistants aforesaid, at the time for taking the census or enumeration aforesaid, to take, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, and according to such instructions as he shall give, an account of the several manufacturing establishments and manufactures within their several districts, territories, and divisions. The said assistants shall make return of the same to the marshals or secretaries of their respective districts or territories, and the said marshal and secretary shall transmit the said returns and abstracts thereof to the Secretary of the Treasury, at the same times at which they are by this act, and the several acts to which this act is an addition, required respectively to make their return of said enumeration to the Secretary of State; for the performance of which additional services they shall respectively receive such compensation as shall hereafter be provided by law.
No schedule was prescribed by the law, nor was the nature of the inquiries to be made indicated, but were wholly subject to the discretion of the Secretary of the Treasury. For the further carrying out of this work, it was provided by a resolution passed March 19, 1812:
That the Secretary of the Treasury be directed to employ a person to digest and reduce to such form as shall be deemed most conducive to the interests of the United States, a statement of the number, nature, extent, situation, and value of the arts and manufactures of the United States, together with such other details, connected with these subjects, as can be made from the abstracts and other documents and returns, reported to him by the marshals and other persons employed to collect information in conformity to the second section of the act of the first of May, one thousand eight hundred and ten, and such other information as has been or may be obtained, which the subject will admit of; and that he report the same to Congress.
For making this digest of manufactures, the sum of $2,000 was authorized by the act of May 16, 1812, while the sum of $40,000 was allowed for the compensation of the marshals and assistants for taking the account of the manufactures, but without statutory provisions for its apportionment.
The statement of manufactures called for by this resolution relates to but four or five items, namely, the kind, quantity, and value of goods manufactured, the number of establishments, in some cases, and the number of machines of various kinds used in certain classes of manufactures, as shown by the printed report, which contains more or less incomplete returns covering these items for considerably more than 200 kinds of goods or things considered, and including several items relating to products other than those of manufactures, but principally agricultural. This report, a quarto volume of 233 pages, was published May 30, 1813, under the following exceedingly comprehensive title:
A Statement of the Arts and Manufactures of the United States of America, exhibiting
I. A collection of facts, evincing their benefactions to agriculture, commerce, navigation, and the fisheries, and their subserviency to the public defense, with an indication of certain existing modes of conducting them, peculiarly important to the United States.
II. A collection of additional facts, tending to show the practical foundation, actual progress, condition, and establishment of the American arts and manufactures, and their connection with the wealth and strength of the United States. Together with
One series of tables of the several branches of American manufactures, exhibiting them by States, Territories, and districts, so far as they were returned in the reports of the marshals and of the secretaries of the territories, and their respective assistants, in the autumn of the year 1810; together with similar returns of certain doubtful goods, productions of the soil, and agricultural stock, so far as they have been reported; and another
Series of tables of the several branches of American manufactures, exhibiting them in every county of the Union, so far as they were returned in the reports of the marshals, and of the secretaries of the territories and their respective assistants, in the autumn of the year 1810; which tables were prepared in execution of an instruction of Albert Gallatin, esquire, Secretary of the Treasury, given by him in obedience to a resolution of Congress of the 19th day of March, 1812.
Concerning the tables, Mr. Tench Coxe, who was charged by the Secretary of the Treasury with the duty of making the digest, says (p. xxvii):
In the tables which form the third and fourth parts of this statement is contained the result of this first attempt of an extensive and populous country, or perhaps of any country, to ascertain in detail the facts which constitute and display the actual condition of its manufactures. The duty of collecting the information by the marshals and secretaries was additional and secondary to the periodical enumeration of the people, and required a longer time than was allowed for such an enumeration, enjoined as a basis of distribution of constitutional power. The period of the two measures was not sufficient for the correspondence between the superior and subordinate officers, which would have produced more perfect details and greater uniformity and perspicuity. It may, however, be affirmed that the tables contain a great number and variety of clear indications of the state of the manufacturing branch of the national industry, and a mass of positive evidence upon the subject, in relation to the eastern, northern, middle, southern, Atlantic, and western sections or grand divisions of the country, with respect to the forms or modes of the manufactures which have grown up, the raw materials upon which they operate, a very considerable portion of the value to which they have arisen, very useful data for the comparative value of internal commerce or manufactures and external commerce or navigation, and foreign trade, and much elucidation of the operations of manufacturing industry upon the commercial and the landed interests, and upon the public safety.
Concerning the work of the marshals and assistants in this connection, Mr. Coxe further says (p. XXV):
Though many of the officers and assistants have performed this new and difficult service with much zeal and intelligence, yet various causes have concurred to occasion numerous and very considerable imperfections and omissions in returns from cities, towns, villages, townships, hundreds, counties, and, as to valuable articles and branches, from States, to be observable. In these first sets of tables it has not been thought best to supply those defects by detailed and diversified estimates, which must be erroneous and might be sanguine.
In submitting a summary of the manufactures by States, Territories, and districts, several footnotes are used, to the general effect that, in the opinion of the marshals of the several States referred to, the values and amounts were much more than as reported, and this summary is followed by an estimate of the value of the manufactures of the United States of America, excluding the doubtful articles, digested by States, districts, and territories, formed by a consideration of all the reported details and by a valuation of the manufactures which are entirely omitted or imperfectly returned, for the year 1810,” giving an estimated total for the whole country of $172,762,676. The total of "the goods made in the United States which are of a doubtful nature in relation to their character as manufactures or agricultural, so far as they have been returned by the marshals and the secretaries of the territories, for the year 1810,” was $25,850,795; or, in all, $198,613,471.
A further estimate is given, under date of May. 1, 1813, by Mr. Coxe (p. liii), covering the year 1813, as follows:
In the course of the numerous and diversified operations, occasioned by the deliberate execution of this digest and statement, constant and close attention has been applied to those facts, which have occurred throughout the Union, since the autumn of the year 1810, from which a judgment of the condition of the manufactures of the United States, in the current year 1813, might be safely formed. It has resulted in a thorough conviction that, after allowing for the interruptions to the importations of certain raw materials, the several branches of manufactures and the States, territories, and districts have advanced, upon a medium, at the full rate of 20 per centum, which would give an aggregate for this year of 207,315,211 dollars. In this increase the State of New York is considered to have most largely partaken, especially by her joint stock companies, and in consequence of the migrations thither from the Eastern States. But as it is best to make ample allowances for some manifest repetitions of articles which are inextricably involved in the subordinate returns, a sincere and well-reflected final opinion is respectfully offered, that the whole people of the United States, taken in 1813 at 8,000,000 of persons, will actually make within this year manufactured goods (exclusively of the doubtfut) to the full value of 200,000,000 of dollars, or 45,000,000 of pounds, of sterling money.
It is apparent, therefore, that the published details of manufactures by States and counties have little value as representing the aggregate amount of manufactures at this period for any section, but they do afford, as stated by Mr. Coxe, “a great number and variety of clear indications of the state of the manufacturing branch of the national industry” at that time.
The total population returned at the census of 1810 was 7,239,881, and the total cost was $178,444.67, of which, approximately, $40,000 was expended on account of the return relating to manufactures.(a)
THE FOURTH CENSUS: 1820.
The fourth census was taken under the direction of the Secretary of State, in accordance with the provisions of the act of March 14, 1820, which adhered very closely to the organic act of 1790, as modified by the changes incorporated in the laws governing the second and third censuses, and the addition of two sections which are explained later on. The duty of taking the census was charged upon the marshals of the several districts and territories of the United States, who were required to divide their districts and appoint assistants in the same manner as at the census of 1810; but the law of 1820 provided, in addition, that where a State comprised two districts, and a part of a county should lie in each district, such county should be considered as belonging to that district in which the court-house of said county was situated.
The enumeration was to commence on the first Monday in August, and was to close within six calendar months, but by act of March 3, 1821, the time prescribed for the completion of the work by marshals and assistants was enlarged to September 1, 1821. It was further required that the enumeration should be made, as in 1810, by an actual inquiry at every dwelling house, or of the head of every family within each district, and not otherwise, and the assistants were required to take an oath or affirmation before entering upon their work and were subject to the same penalties as heretofore. The marshals were directed by the act to file with the returns of their assistants an attested copy of the return which the law required should be made to the Secretary of State, the same as in 1810, but they were now subject to a penalty of $1,000, instead of $800, as in preceding censuses.
The assistants were to receive compensation at the same rates prescribed in the law of 1810, including that allowed for the copies of their schedule to be set up for the inspection of all concerned; but before any assistant should be entitled to receive such compensation, he was required by the law of 1820 to take and subscribe to an oath or affirmation to the effect that the number of persons set forth in his return has been ascertained by actual inquiry at every dwelling house, or of the head of every family, in exact conformity with the
a Report of Seventh Census, viii.
provisions of the act, and that he had, in every respect, fulfilled the duties required of him by the act, to the best of his abilities, and that the return aforesaid is correct and true, according to the best of his knowledge and belief. In addition, provision was made by the act of 1820, that where the superficial content of any county or parish exceeded 40 miles square, and the number of inhabitants in said parish or county did not exceed 2,500, the marshal or assistants should be allowed, with the approbation of the district or territorial judges, further compensation, provided the same did not exceed $3 for every 50 persons returned. The number of districts and territories to be enumerated was increased to 31 at this census, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, as well as Tennessee, each being divided into two districts, and the compensation of the marshals, which was fixed by the act, varied from $50, for the marshal of the District of Columbia, to $35 for the marshal of the district of North Carolina.
The schedule of inquiries called for the same age distribution of the free white population, male and female, as in 1800 and 1810, with the addition in 1820 of the number of free white males between 16 and 18 years. It also provided for a separation of the number of free colored persons and of slaves, respectively, by sex, according to the number under 14 years of age, of 14 and under 26, of 26 and under 45, and of 45 and upward, with a statement of the number of all other persons, except Indians not taxed.” An inquiry was also contained in the schedule, for the first time, as to the number of foreigners not naturalized, and the number of persons (including slaves) engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufactures.
Not deterred by the poor success of the attempt to secure industrial statistics in 1810, this requirement was again made a part of the law of 1820, under the provisions of which it was made “the duty of the several marshals and their assistants, at the time for taking the said census, to take, under the direction of the Secretary of State, and according to such instructions as he shall give, and such forms as he shall prescribe, an account of the several manufacturing establishments, and their manufactures, within their several districts, territories, and divisions.” The returns relating to manufactures were to be sent by the assistants to the marshals of their respective districts or territories, and were to be in turn transmitted by them, with abstracts thereof, to the Secretary of State at the same time at which they were required to make their returns of the enumeration; and for this additional service they were to receive “not exceeding 20 per centum in addition to the sums allowed by this act, to be apportioned in proportion to the services rendered, under the direction of the Secretary of State."
It was further provided by a resolution approved March 30, 1822, that a digest of the returns of the several manufacturing establishments should be made under the direction of the Secretary of State,