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except the part to which I referred. If it is, however, in any other part of the bill, I hope that you will see that it does not stay there long when the bill is considered in committee or is reported to the Senate.

Now, Mr. Chairman, I am not going to take the time of the committee. This bill is indorsed by the dairy interests of the country generally

I will first introduce Senator Copeland, who will speak from the standpoint of the city of New York, and particularly from the standpoint of the public health.

(Senator Lenroot submitted the following documents :)

[Excerpts from the sanitary code established by the public health council of the State

of New York]

MILK AND CREAM

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(Including amendments to April 1, 1925) REGULATION 1. Permit required for sale of milk in municipalities. No corporation, association, firm, or individual shall sell or offer for sale at retail milk or cream in any municipality without a permit from the health officer thereof, which shall be issued subject to such conditions as may be imposed by this code or by the local health officer, except that the local health officer may exempt from the provisions of this regulation persons selling milk from not more than one cow. Such permit shall expire on the 30th day of April, unless another date is designated by the local health board, and shall be renewable on or before such date in each year, and may be revoked at any time for cause by the State commissioner of health or the local health officer after a hearing on due notice. (Amended October 1, 1914, and December 7, 1920.)

REG. 13. Designations of milk and cream restricted. All milk sold and offered for sale at retail, except milk sold or offered for sale as sour milk under its various designations, shall bear one of the designations provided in this regulation, which constitute the minimum requirements permitted in this State.

No term shall be used to designate the grade or quality of milk or cream which is sold or offered for sale, except:

Certified.
Grade A raw.
Grade A pasteurized.
Grade B raw.
Grade B pasteurized.
Grade C raw.
Grade C pasteurized.

Grade A raw. No milk or cream shall be sold or offered for sale as Grade A raw unless it conforms to the following requirements:

The dealer selling or delivering such milk or cream must hold a permit from the local health officer.

All cows producing such milk or cream must have been tested at least once during the previous year with tuberculin, and any cow reacting thereto must have been promptly excluded from the herd.

Such milk must not at any time previously to delivery to the consumer contain more than 60,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter, and such cream not more than 300,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter.

Such milk and cream must be produced on farms which are duly scored on the score card prescribed by the State commissioner of health not less than 25 per cent for equipment and not less than 50 per cent for methods.

Such milk and cream must be delivered within 36 hours from the time of milking, unless a shorter time shall be prescribed by the local health authorities.

Such milk and cream must be delivered to consumers only in containers sealed at the dairy or a bottling plant. The caps or tags must be white and contain the term “Grade A raw” in large black type, and the name and address of the dealer.

Grade B pasteurized. No milk or cream shall be sold or offered for sale as frade B pasteurized unless it conforms to the following requirements: The dealer selling or delivering such milk or cream must hold a permit

the local health officer.

All cows producing such milk or cream must be healthy, as disclosed by an annual physical examination.

Such milk or cream before pasteurization must not contain more than 1,500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter.

Such milk must not at any time after pasteurization and previous to de. livery to the consumer contain more than 100,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter, and such cream not more than 500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter.

Such milk and cream must be produced on farms which are duly scored on the score card prescribed by the State commissioner of health not less than 20 per cent for equipment and not less than 35 per cent for methods.

Such milk must be delivered within 36 hours after pasteurization between April 1 and November 1, and within 48 hours after pasteurization between November 1 and April 1, and such cream within 48 hours after pasteurization, unless a shorter time is prescribed by the local health authorities.

The caps or tags on the containers must be white and contain the term “ Grade B pasteurized in large bright-green type, and the name of the dealer. (Amended March 4, 1915, October 5. 1915, January 9, 1917, and January 10, 1919.)

[Excerpts from the sanitary code, Department of Health of New York City]

GRADE A MILK

Reg. 50. Bacteria standard : Milk or skimmed milk of this grade and designation shall not contain more than 30,000 bacteria (colonies) per cubic centimeter when delivered to the consumer at or any time after Pasteurization. Cream of this grade and designation shall not contain more than 150,000 bacteria (colonies) per cubic centimeter when delivered to the consumer or at any time after Pasteurization. No raw milk or raw, skimmed milk produced in or shipped to the city of New York to be Pasteurized, and intended to be Pasteurized, and intended to be sold in said city under this grade and designation, shall contain more than 200,000 bacteria (colonies) per cubic centimeter before Pasteurization. No raw milk or raw, skimmed milk produced and Pasteurized outside the city of New York and intended to be sold in said city of New York under this grade and designation shall contain more than 100,000 bacteria (colonies) per cubic centimeter at any time before Pasteurization. Raw cream of this grade and designation must be produced from milk conforming to the bacteria standard prescribed in such milk in this regulation.

GRADE B, PASTUERIZED Reg. 79. Bacteria standard : Milk or skimmed milk of this grade and designation shall not contain more than 100,000 bacteria (colonies) per cubic centimeter when delivered to the consumer or at any time after Pasteurization. Cream of this grade and designation shall not contain more than 500,000 bacteria (colonies) per cubic centimeter when delivered to the consumer or at any time after Pasteurization. No raw milk or raw, skimmed milk produced in or shipped to the city of New York to be Pasteurized and intended to be sold in said city under this grade and designation shall contain more than 1,500,000 bacteria (colonies) per cubic centimeter before Pasteurization. No raw milk or raw, skimmed milk produced and Pasteurized outside of the city of New York and intended to be sold in said city under this grade and designation shall contain more than 300,000 bacteria (colonies) per cubic centimeter at any time before Pasteurization. Raw cream of this grade and designation must be produced from milk conforming to the bacteria standard prescribed for such milk in this regulation.

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In 1925 our total import of milk and cream was from Canada.

The quarter just closed is not representative for 1926 of the rate at which milk and cream came in from Canada, as it comprises the low period of winter production. Last year the heavy imports of milk and cream occurred in the month of July.

One reason for this great increase in imports from Canada may be attributed to the fact that when the Congress passed the tariff act of 1922 the butterfat basis failed to receive proper recognition as between the tariff rate on butter and the tariff rate on cream. For example, the rate on butter was placed at 8 cents a pound, while the rate on cream was placed at 20 cents a gallon up to 45 per cent butter-fat content. At this rate cream at 40 per cent butter-fat content would be paying a tariff of approximately 6 cents a pound in terms of butter. Recently the President, after an investigation by the Tariff Commission, ordered the tariff on butter to be raised to 12 cents a pound. That will have the effect of widening the margin as between butter and cream from 2 cents to 6 cents per pound.

All imports of milk and cream into the United States [Source: Bureau of Economics, United States Department of Agriculture)

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Practically all imported from Canada, with a negligible quantity coming in from Denmark, Italy, Norway, and the United Kingdom.

[From The Milk Industry, Vol. VI, No. 10, 1926, p. 83]

The imported milk regulations : Important clauses of a draft of order, dated March 5, proposed to be made by the minister of health.

3. (1) Every sanitary authority shall enforce and execute these regulations and shall keep a register of persons to whom milk imported into their district may be consigned.

(2) Any officer of the sanitary authority duly authorized in that behalf may take a sample of any milk imported into the district.

4. No person shall receive any milk consigned to him from any place outside the British Islands unless he is registered under these regulations by the sanitary authority into whose district the milk is imported.

5. All imported milk shall be in such condition that, on a sample being taken within the district of a sanitary authority, the milk shall be found to contain not more than 100,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter and to be free from tubercle bacilli.

6. (1) If the sanitary authority are satisfied that any milk imported into their district does not comply with the provisions of these regulations, they may serve upon the person to whom the milk was consigned a notice to appear before them not less than seven days after the date of the notice to show cause why they should not, for reasons to be specified in the notice, remove him from the register, either absolutely or in respect of any specified source of supply; and if he fails to show cause to their satisfaction accordingly they may remove him from the register.

(2) Any person aggrieved by any such decision of the sanitary authority as aforesaid may, within 21 days, appeal to a court of summary jurisdiction and that court may require the sanitary authority not to remove him from the register.

(3) The sanitary authority, or such person as aforesaid, may appeal from the decision of the court of summary jurisdiction to the next practicable court of quarter sessions, and that court may confirm, vary, or reverse the order of the court of summary jurisdiction.

(4) The dicision of a sanitary authority to remove any person from the register shall not have effect until the expiration of the time for appeal is brought until the expiration of the time for appeal to a court of summary jurisdiction, nor if any such appeal is brought until the expiration of seven days after the determination thereof; nor if notice of appeal to quarter sessions is given within such seven days until such appeal is finally determined unless such appeal ceases to be prosecuted.

7. A person shall, if so required, give to any officer of a sanitary authority acting in the execution of these regulations all reasonable assistance in his power and shall in relation to anything within his knowledge furnish any such officer with all information he may reasonably require for the purposes of these regulations.

· British Islands means Great Britain and Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man.

Imported milk” means milk imported into England or Wales from any place situated outside the British Islands.

STATEMENT OF HON. ROYAL S. COPELAND, UNITED STATES

SENATOR FROM NEW YORK

Senator COPELAND. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I knew nothing about this bill until it was introduced by Sena-. tor Lenroot, but I thoroughly and heartily indorse it. It is a matter of great pride to me to think that my city was the pioneer in inaugurating rules and regulations and methods of control insuring to the people an adequate supply of pure milk. We were pioneers, as I said, in this matter, and every law which has been written by a state or nation since that time has been founded upon the New York City law. This bill is almost verbatim, it follows the New York City law so closely.

Mr. Chairman, there is not anything more important to the people of any community than the quality of their milk supply. Milk is at the same time the most precious of all foods and capable of being one of the most dangerous poisons.

Senator Lenroot spoke about the laws of England. It will be interesting to the committee to know what the impulse was to England for making this law. I was there some years ago with a young son who suffered from violent milk poisoning in London. He nearly died as the result of this experience. My own relations with the minister of health were such that I did not hesitate to go down and express the feeling I had about the kind of milk sold in London. It is a most outrageous thing. Little carts move along the streets, filled with milk containers, with cups hanging on the side, and the dirt and dust of the street mixing with the milk. That is the sort of stuff that is sold to the people in London, or was.

As a result of some agitation they now have a law not so far-reaching as this, but in the direction of it.

We require in New York City that all milk sold there shall meet a certain standard. I think, Senator Lenroot, you put in, did you not, the sanitary code of our city?

Senator LENROOT. Yes.

Senator COPELAND. All milk sold in the city is, in the first place, from herds which are inspected by the officials of the Health De

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