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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
1949 and 1950
Prepared under the Supervision of
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.
A. Ross Eckler, Deputy Director
Morris H. Hansen, Assistant Director for Statistical Standards
1. Introduction 2. Establishments Covered in the Annual Surveys 3. Design and Selection of the Annual Survey
Sample 4. Canvassing Methods Used in the Surveys 5. The Annual Survey Establishment Report Forms 6. Classification of Establishments Into Industries 7. Coordination of Census BOASI Employment Data 8. Employment and Pay Roll Data Collected in the
Annual Surveys 9. Material Costs, Inventories, and Shipments Data 10. Expenditures for New Plant and Equipment 11. Metals Consumed 12. Estimating Procedures Used in the 1949 and
1950 Annual Surveys 13. Qualifications of the Published Data 14. Disclosure of Data for Individual Companies
mates of most of these general statistics for industry groups, important individual industries, geographic divisions and States, and for important cross-tabulations of major industry groups by division and by State. It also provides broad industrial and geographic totals for inventories, fuels, and expenditures for plant and equipment, and United States totals for selected product classes and metals consumed. In addition, comparable county-by-industry group employment figures have been developed jointly with the Bureau of Old Age and Survivors Insurance to meet the needs for small area manufacturing data in the “County Business Patterns" publication program.
The 1949 Annual Survey was financed by funds specifically appropriated by the Congress for this purpose to the National Security Resources Board. Funds for the 1950 survey were provided in large part through the National Production Authority.
The final results of the annual survey of manufactures are shown in this publication for 1949 and 1950, the first 2 years for which it was conducted. Preliminary releases for 1949 were published in August 1951 and preliminary figures for 1950, in November 1951, a reduction in elapsed publication time of 9 months.
The annual survey is an integral part of a program of industrial statistics which reached its present development following legislation that shifted the Census of Manufactures from a biennial to a quinquennial basis. There is general agreement that a complete and comprehensive census every 5 years, combined with annual intercensal plant surveys, current commodity surveys, and improved small area manufacturing employment data (developed jointly with the Bureau of Old Age and Survivors Insurance), constitute a more efficient means of satisfying business and government needs for industrial statistics than a biennial census program. At the present time these data furnish a background against which defense agencies can measure the impact of their mobilization efforts on all important segments of manufacturing.
Over a 10-year period, it is believed that the cost of the Census-annual survey program will be considerably less than that of a biennial census program. The savings possible under this program arise from several sources. In the first place, much of the detail collected in a complete Census is eliminated from the annual survey and the questionnaire is restricted to measurement of only the most essential characteristics of manufacturing activity. Secondly, whereas the census covers all manufacturing plants (of which there were some 240,000 in 1947), the annual survey reaches a sample of only about 45,000 plants. Finally, through improvements in the quality of reported data which may be expected as a result of continuing contact with the larger manufacturing companies and many of the smaller ones, it appears likely that part of the cost of the annual surveys will be recovered indirectly by enabling some reduction to be made in the outlays for the quinquennial censuses.
It should be noted, however, that a sample survey as large as this one presents some very difficult problems in coverage, collection, processing, tabulation, and controls.
2. Establishments Covered in the Annual Surveys
a. Definition of Manufacturing Establishments:
The annual survey, based on a representative sample of manufacturing establishments, carries forward yearly the general statistics of manufacturing activity (value added by manufacture, value of shipments, cost of materials, fuels and electric energy consumed, employment, manhours, pay rolls, inventories, and capital expenditures), which are covered in detail by the quinquennial census. In addition, it fills in important gaps in the Bureau's existing monthly, quarterly, and annual reports on selected manufactured prod ucts. The annual survey is designed to yield esti
Following previous census procedures, the annual survey is conducted on an establishment reporting basis. The term "establishment'' generally signifies a single plant or factory where manufacturing operations are performed and is not necessarily identical with the business unit or company which may consist of one or more establish