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MEANINGS OF MUSICAL TERMS. ACCELLERANDO, or Accel. Quicken the Loco. Place, play as written, time gradually:

MAESTOSO. Majestic and dignified. ADAGIO. Very slow.

MARTELLATO. Struck with force.
AD LIBITUM, or AD LIB. At will.

MENO. Less.
AFFETTUOSO. Affecting, with pathos. MEZZO, or M. Neither loud nor soft-me
AGITATO. Agitated.

dium. AL FINE. To the end.

MEZZO FORTE, or MF. Rather loud. ALLEGRETTO. Somewhat cheerful, but MEZZO PIANO, or MP. Rather soft. not so quick as Allegro.

MODERATO. Moderate.
ALLEGRO. Quick.

Molto. Very.
AL SEGNO. To the sign, signifying that Mosso. Movement.

the performer must go back to the sigo, Moro, or Con Moto. With agitation and
:S:, and play from that mark to the earnestness.
word Fine.

MORENDO. Dying away.
AMOROSO. Lovingly.

NON TROPPO. Not too in uch. ANDANTE. Somewhat slow.

OBLIGATO. Cannot be omitted. ANDANTINO. Not quite so slow as An- OTTAVA, or BVA. An octave higher. dante.

PATETICO. Pathetically: ANIMATO. In an animated style.

PASTORALE. A soft and rural movement. A POCO A POCO. Little by little.

PIANO, or P. Soft. ARIA. An air or song

PIANISSIMO, or PP. Very soft. Assal. Very, extremely.

Piu. Very. A TEMPO. In the regular time.

Poco. A little, somewhat. BIS Twice (repeat).

POMPOSO. Pompous, grand. BRILLANTE. Brilliant.

PRESTO. Very quick.
CALANDO. Diminishing gradually in tone PRESTISSIMO. As quick as possible.
and speed.

QUASI. As if.
CANTABILE. In a graceful, singing style. ŘALLENTANDO, or RALL. A gradual dimi.
CON Moro. Iu agitated style; with spirit, nution of tone and retarding of move-
CON SPIRITO. With quickness and spirit. ment.
CODA. A few bars added to terminate a RELIGIOSO. In a solemn style.
composition.

RITARDANDO, or RITAR., or Rit. Gradu-
COLLA VOCE. With the voice or melody.

ally slower. CON BRIO. With brilliancy.

RINFORZANDO, or RF. With additional
CON EXPRESSIONE. With expression. force.
CRESCENDO, or Cres. Gradually increase RITENUTO.

Hold back the time at once. the volume of tone.

SCHERZANDO. Playfully. DA CAPO, or D. C. Repeat from the be- SEGUE. Continue as before. ginning to the word Fine.

SERIA. Seriously. DECRESCENDO, or DECRES. Gradually di- SEMPRE. Throughout-always. minish the volume of tone.

SEMPLICE. In a simple, unaffected style. DELICATO. Delicately.

SEGNO, or :S: Sigu; as, Al Segno, to the DEL SEGNO. See Segno.

sign; Dal Segno, repeat from the sign to DIMINUENDO, or DIM. Same as Decres- the word Fine. cendo.

SENZA. Without.
DOLCE, or Dol. In a sweet, smooth style. SFORZANDO. Emphasized.
DOLOROSO. Iu a mouruful, pathetic style. SINCOPATO. Forced out of time.
E. And.

SMORZANDO. Smoothed, decreased.
EXPRESSIVO.

Soave. Soft and delicate.
EXPRESSIONE.
With expression.

Sotto VOCE. In an undertone.
FINE. The end.

SOSTENUTO. In a smooth, connected style. FORTE, or F. Loud.

SPIRITO, or Cox SPIRITO. With spirit. FORTISSIMO, or FF. Very loud.

STACCATO. Detached, short. FORZANDO, or Fz. Signifies that the note | TEMPO. In tine.

is to be given peculiar emphasis or force. TEMPO DI MARCIA. In marching time. FORZA. Force.

TEMPO DI Valse. In waltz time. Fuoco. With fire.

TEMPO PRIMO. In the original time. GRAVE. Extremely slow.

TRILLANDO. Shaking on a succession of GRAZIOSO. In a graceful, elegant style. notes. IMPROMPTU. Au extemporaneous produc- TRANQUILLO. Tranquilly. tion.

TUTTO FORZA. As loud as possible. L. H. Left hand.

VELOCE. With velocity. LARGHETTO. Slow and solemn, but less VIGOROSO. Boldly, vigorously. so than Largo

VIVACE. With extreme briskness and LARGO. Very slow and solemn.

animation. LEGERAMENTE. Lightly, gaily.

Vivo. Animated, lively. LENTANDO. Slower by degrees.

VOLTI SUBITO. Turn over

the pages LEGATO. In a sinooth and connected man- quickly. per

Zeloso.' With zeal. LENTO. In a slow time.

SIDE-LIGHTS ON HISTORY.

Here is the moral of all human tales;
'Tis but the same rehearsal of the past,
First freedom, and then glory-when that fails,
Wealth, vice, corruption-barbarism at last,
And history, with all her volumes vast,
Hath but one page.

-BYRON.

INFLUENCES FOR GOOD OR EVIL. The word Khedive signifies lord. Quebec is termed the Gibraltar of America. Bismarck was called the “Boot of Prussia." The life of Napoleon III. was attempted six times. Potsdam has been called the Versailles of Prussia. Byron terms the era of Napoleon I. the age of bronze. El Almirante, without any proper name, refers to Columbus. Washington first called New York State “the seat of empire.” The Greek Herodotus, 450 B. C., is called the Father of History. James I. of England was termed the Wisest Fool in Christendom. The third house” of a legislature is a term applied to the lobby. Machiavelli is spoken of by the Florentines simply as "Il segretario." The so-called Paradise of Europe is the valley of the Arno, in Tuscany.

Pandours were the fierce, irregular troops of Austria some fifty years ago.

Knight service in feudal times was held to amount to forty days per year.

The Rubicon was a small stream that divided cis-alpine Gaul from Italy.

In recent European history the term fourth estate applies to the press.

The younger squirearchy of Prussia are what constitute the“'Yunker'' party.

To Patrick Henry we owe the phrase, “give me liberty or give me death."

The term "nation of shopkeepers” was applied to England by Napoleon.

Orange is a petty privcipality in Avignon, owned by the Nassau family.

Mehemed Ali, pacha of Egypt (1760-1841), was the “Napoleon of the East.”

Khaled, Mahommed's lieutenant, was called by Orientals the "Sword of God.”

Emancipation of slaves took place in all Britain's colonies on August 28, 1833.

Shah is but an abbreviation of the larger title Shah-in-Shah, King of Kings.

“Well-beloved" was a title given to a most licentious king, Louis XV. of France.

Dibdin's famous sea songs were written to promote loyalty in the

British navy.

There are ten republics in South America and two in North-Europe has only two.

The French King Clovis (481-511) was the first entitled Eldest Son of the Church.

Mossbacks is defined as a sobriquet for the remnants of the antebellum Der cracy.

Jayhawkers was a name for guerillas or bushrangers during the Kansas troubles of 1856.

Frederick I., emperor of Germany (1121-1152), was the one called Barbarossa (Red-beard).

It was the first Napoleon who said there is but one step from the sublime to the ridiculous."

The States of the Church are often referred to, since 1077 A. D., as the Patrimony of St. Peter.

Monsieur de Paris was a name given to the public executioner during the French Revolution.

"There is a higher law than the Constitution” is a phrase from one of W. H. Seward's speeches.

Black Watch was a name given to the forty-second regiment (Highlanders) of British infantry.

The Sailor King was a name applied to William IV. of England. He had served long in the pavy.

The Kings of Muscovy, Sweden, Denmark, Poland and Hungary all became Christians in 990 A. D.

In Germany the term “reptile bureaucracy''applies to certain journalists in receipt of government pay.

Great universities date from: Paris, 1109; Oxford, 1150; Cambridge, 1209; Glasgow, 1450; Dublin, 1591.

Mrs. O'Leary's cow is the famous animal that is believed to have started the great Chicago fire of 1871.

A yellow flag denotes quarantine; a black flag indicates a pirate; a red flag, defiance; a white flag, truce.

The “Terror" applied to the period in French history (1793-1794) just prior to the death of Robespierre.

It is 440 years since the Christian church of Santa Sophia became the chief Mahommedan mosque of the Turks.

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Panslavism means the union of all the Slavic nations into one: Russia, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, Bulgaria, etc.

The "Iron” crown of Lombardy, now held by Humbert of Italy, is in reality a splendidly bejewelled golden crown.

There is no Emperor of Germany; the true title is either German Emperor or "Emperor of the German Kingdoms."

"The Primrose League” of England was founded in 1883, in memory of Earl Beaconsfield. It has now 1,000,000 members.

The Covenanters were Scotchmen who bound themselves together in 1638 and took up arms to resist the introduction of the Episcopalian liturgy into the Scottish Church.

Court Jesters were persons who were kept in the households of princes and lesser dignitaries to furnish amusement by their real or affected folly, and hence commonly called Court Fools.

Condottieri are bands of mercenaries, ready to serve under any leader. They were common in Europe during the middle ages and took a considerable part in the endless feuds of the Italian states.

The Chambre Ardente was an extraordinary French tribunal which frequently sentenced to death “by fire.” It was used to investigate poisoning cases after the execution of the Marchioness of Brinvilliers.

The round table is the subject of one of the legends in connection with King Arthur, who, it is said, dined at a circular table capable of seating 150 of his bravest followers, termed Knights of the Round Table.

Vinegar will not split rocks, so Hannibal could not thus have made his way through the Alps. Nor will it dissolve pearls, so that the story of Cleopatra drinking pearls melted in vinegar must have been a fiction.

The original Electors of Germany, who chose the Kaiser, were the king of Bohemia, duke of Saxony, margrave of Brandenburg, count palatine of the Rhine, and the archbishops of Mayence, Treves and Cologne.

Dacoits are robbers of Northern India and Burmah, who make raids in armed bands. They gave great trouble to the occupying force in the annexation of Burmah, but have practically been exterminated by the British army.

The Dannebrog is the oldflag of the Danes, and also the name of an order of knighthood said to have been instituted in 1219. The jewel is a copy of the flag: a white enameled gold cross, suspended by a white ribbon edged with red.

Jacobins were the members of a political club which exercised a great influence during the French Revolution. It was originally called the Club Breton, and was formed at Versailles, when the States-general assembled there in 1789.

Formerly, in England, branding was a method of punishment, but was abolished (1829) in the reign of George IV. It was performed with a red-hot iron on the face, hand or other part of the body. Branding in the British Army abolished, 1879.

In Roman history there were two famous coalitions of three men each, called triumvirates, formed for ruling the state: (1) Between Julius Cæsar, Pompey and Crassus (50 B.C.); (2) between Octavius Cæsar, Mark Antony and Lepidus (43 B.c.)

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The Italian city, Venice, is often called the “Bride of the Sea,” from the ancient ceremony of the doge marrying the city to the Adriatic by throwing a ring into it, pronouncing these words, “We wed thee, O sea, in token of perpetual dominion."

It is not generally known that the four kings of a pack of cards are Charlemagne (the Franco-German king), David (the Jewish king), Alexander (the Macedonian king), and Cæsar (the Roman king). These four kings are representatives of the four great monarchies.

The Young England Party was a party formed during the corn-law agitation of 1842–46. It consisted of young Tory aristocrats, prominent among whom was Lord John Manners, who advocated a return to a modified feudalism. Disraeli lent the party his support.

The Confederation of the Rhine, formed July 12, 1806, was a federation of the Germanic States, formed by Napoleon Bonaparte, whose disastrous Russian campaign (1812) caused the dissolution of the Confederation, the Germanic Confederation taking its place.

The Decemvirs were men who drew up a code of Roman laws, and who, in 451 B.C., had the whole government of Rome in their hands. They were successful in their administration till the incident of Appius Claudius and Virginia led to the appointment of consuls.

The triple expression, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité), as the motto of the French Republic, dates from the time of the first revolution. Equality, it should be noted, merely means equality before the law and the absence of class privileges.

An Africander is a descendant of European parents born in South Africa. An association called the Africander-Bond was formed in Cape Colony after the Transvaal war, the object of which was the consolidation and extension of the Dutch population in South Africa.

The Young Ireland Party was an Irish patriotic party which came to the front in 1848, shortly after O'Connell's death. They had resort to physical force, and several of their leaders, including Smith O'Brien, John Mitchell and Thomas Francis Meagher, were transported.

Concordat is a term sometimes applied to secular treaties, but generally employed to denote an agreement made between the pope, as the head of the Roman Catholic Church, and a secular government, on matters which concern the interests of its Roman Catholic subjects.

The Vendéan rising in La Vendée, a maritime department of France, on the Atlantic, in favor of the Bourbons (1793), was eventually suppressed by General Hoche (1796). Georges Cadoudal, the last Vendéan chief, was executed (1804) for his share in a plot against the life of Napoleon, when first consul.

Sicilian Vespers is the designation of the massacre of the French which began at Palermo, at vespers, on Easter Monday, March 30, 1282. The insurrection spread to the rest of the island, and ended in the overthrow of the government of Charles of Anjou and the establishment of the dynasty of Aragon.

Of deep historic significance were the Bulgarian Atrocities, a title given to an insurrection which in 1876 broke out in Bulgaria and was repressed with horrible cruelties, raising a wave of indignation throughout Europe. Mr. Gladstone published an article, “Horrors in Bulgaria,” in September of that year.

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