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CITIZENS' CHILDREN WHO ARE BORN ABROAD.--The children of persons who now are or have been citizens of the United States are, though born out of ihe limits and jurisdiction of the United States, considered as citizens thereof.
PROTECTION ABROAD TO NATURALIZED CITIZENS. -- Section 2000 of the Revised Statutes of the United States declares that "all naturalized citizens of the United States, while in foreign countries are entitled to and shall receive from this Govercment the same protection of persons and property which is accorded to native-born citizens."
PARLIAMENTARY LAW CONDENSED.
(Letters refer to rules below.) Modifying or amending.
8. To amend or to substitute, or to divide the question..... To refer to commillee. 7. To commit (or recommit)..
D Deferring action.
с 4. To lay on the table
A E G Suppressing or extending debate. 5. For the previous question..
А E M м To limit, or close, debate.
A M M To extend limits of debate.
A Suppressing the question. Objection to consideration of question.
H н M M N 9. To postpone indefinitely
D E 4. To lay upon the table
I Concerning Orders. Rules, etc. 3. For the orders of the day.
E H Н N
A E F M M
Asking leave to continue speaking after indecorum.
E H L
E H L
E Closing a meeling. 2. To adjourn (in committees, to rise), or to take a recess, į without limitation.
A E 1. To fix the time to which to adjourn...
ORDER OF PRECEDENCE.-The motions above numbered 1 to 9 take precedence over 211 others in the order given, and any one of them, except to amend or substitute, is in order while a motion of a lower rank is pending.
RULE A. Undebatable, but remarks may be tacitly allowed.
RULE D. Opens the main question to debate. Motions not so marked do not allow of reference to main question.
RULE E. Cannot be amended. Motion to adjouru can be amended when there is no other business before the house.
RULE F. Cannot be reconsidered.
Rule 1. A motion to reconsider may be moved and entered when another has the floor, but the business then before the house may not be set aside. This motion can only be entertained when made by one who voted originally with the prevailing side.
When called up it takes precedence of all others which may come up, exceptiog only motions relating to adjournment
Rule K. A motion to amend an amendment cannot be amended.
RULEL. When an appeal from the chair's decision results in a tie vote, the chair is sustained.
RULEM. Requires a two-thirds vote unless special rules have been enacted,
The maker of a motion cannot modify it or withdraw it after it has been stated by the chair, except by general consent.
Ouly one reconsideration of a question is permitted.
A notion to adjourn, to lay on the table, or to take from the table, cannot be renewed unless some other motion has been made in the interval.
Ou motion to strike out the words, "Shall the words staud part of the motion?" upless a majority sustain the words, they are struck out.
On motion for previous question, the form to be observed is, "Shall the main question be now put?" "This, it carried, ends debate.
Onan appeal from the chair's decision, "Shall the decision be sustained as the ruling of the house?" the chair is generally sustained.
On motion for orders of the day, "Will the house now proceed to the orders of the day?”' This, if carried, supersedes intervening motions.
When an objection is raised to considering questions, "Shall the question be considered?" objections may be made by any member before debate has commenced, but not subsequently.
WOMAN SUFFRAGE. The following is a statement of the Woman Suffrage movement, corrected to January 1, 1893. Thirty-two States and Territories - a majority of the Union-have given women some form of suffrage.
WYOMING.–Women have voted on the same terms with men since 1870. The convention in 1889, to form a State Constitution, unanimously inserted a provision securing them suffrage. This Constitution was ratified by the voters at a special election by about three-fourths majority. Congress admitted the State July 10, 1890.
WASHINGTON.-Women voted in the Territory for five years, till excluded by a decision of the Territorial Supreme Court, which court was not elected by the people nor responsible to them. In adopting a State Constitution, the question of allowing women to vote was submitted separately to vote of the men. It was not carried. Many women claim that they were illegally excluded, and are seeking to regain suffrage.
KANSAS.–Women have suffrage in all municipal elections. About 60,000 voted last year.
UTAH.-Women voted in this Territory until excluded by the Edmunds law. They have organized in large numbers to demand the repeal of this law. The State Constitution of 1884 gave suffrage to women.
School suffrage exists, on various terms, in Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington and Wisconsin. Women can vote for trustees of the State University in Illinois, and for county superintendents in Minnesota.
MONTANA.—The State Constitution guarantees women the power to vote on local taxation.
NEW YORK.-Women can vote at waterworks elections, and on questions of local improvements; also for Assembly District School Commissioners in the rural districts once in three years.
PENNSYLVANIA.-Women vote on local improvements, by signing or refusing to sign petitions.
NEW JERSEY.–Women can vote at elections for sewers and other improvements.
SOUTHERN STATES.-Delaware has municipal woman suffrage in Wilmington and many other places. Louisiana admits women to vote on the question of running railroads through parishes. Tennessee on incorporation of cities and annexation thereto. Mississippi on fence questions under the stock law. Arkansas and Missouri by signing or refusing petitions on liquor license. Kentucky, widows whose children attend school vote. Texas women in many counties vote by signing or refusing to sign petitions for school officers.
PARTIES THAT ELECTED PRESIDENTS.
DEMOCRATS, 6 -- Jackson, Van Buren, Polk, Pierce, Buchanan, Cleveland.
Whigs, 4-Harrison, Tyler, Taylor, Fillmore.
NEW REPUBLICANS, 7–Lincoln, Johnson, Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Harrison.
THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW. The constitution of the United States of America having recognized slavery, or “service,” as it was termed, provided that persons held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, and escaping into another, should be delivered up, on claim of the party to whom such service or labor miglit be due. An act passed by congress in 1793, providing for the reclamation of fugitives, was superseded by a more stringent act in 1850, containing many obnoxious provisions; a larger fee, for instance, was paid to the judicial officer when the person arrested was adjudged to be a slave than when he was declared free; and all citizens were required, when called upon, to render the officers personal assistance in the performance of their duties. Any assistance rendered to a fugitive, or obstruction offered to his arrest was penal, and many persons were remanded under the act; but the increased hostility to slavery which it engendered actually led to assistance being given in a larger number of escapes than ever before, mainly through the organization known as the “underground railroad." The act was repealed after the outbreak of the civil war; and, since slavery has been abolished, the constitutional provision has lost all importance.
CONGRESS AND ITS DUTIES. The American Congress is divided into the Senate and the House of Representatives, a division which was made because our Government was founded upon the model of England, whose Parliament consists of a House of Peers and a House of Commons. The Senate is supposed to play the same part in American legislation which the House of Peers does in Britain. It is a sort of governor in the machinery of the body politic which exerts a conservative and prudent influence on law-making. The Senate originally, although that meaning has been largely neglected, meant the conclave of the sovereign States of the Union, a council which was to look more closely after the general and external affairs of the confederacy, while the House of Representatives was to represent the people of the whole Union. This meaning, it has been said above, has been largely lost in the course of time, but the fiction remains, and the division of the powers of Government between the two bodies illustrates the purpose which the fathers of the Government had in the original separation into two Houses.
THE SENATE. — The Senate consists of two Senators from each State of the Federal Union. These Senators are chosen by the Legislatures of the respective States and hold office for six years. There was a strong effort made at the time of the drafting of the Constitution to extend the term for life, but this was believed to savor too much of aristocracy, and after long debate six years was agreed upon as a compromise measure. The pay of Senators is $5,000 per year. The Senate is presided over by the Vice-President, and when lie has for any cause vacated his office a President pro tempore of the Senate is elected. There are now (1893) eighty-six Senators. All impeachments are tried by the Senate, and when the President of the United States is on trial the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court must preside. The Senate must approve of treaties made with foreign governments by the President before they can become binding, and the consent of the Senate is necessary to the appointments to all the great offices of the State made by the President. The Senate is the only permanent body in the United States Government, the elections being always so ordered that two-thirds of the Senators hold over.
THE HOUSE. - In the early days of the Federal Union the only legislative body was the Continental Congress, which exercised both the executive and legislative functions of government, and which occasionally performed judicial duties also. The old Congress piloted the nation through the Revolutionary war, but, although effective for its original purpose, it was not able for the work which fell upon its shoulders under the articles of confederation. The articles themselves were unsuited to the land, and in a little while it became evident that the United States experiment would end in disaster and disappointment unless something was done to give it shape and direction.
The man that had led the Continental Army to glory and freedom through the Revolution again came forward and preserved by his wise statesmanship the Republic which his military genius had founded. At the call of George Washington the American Constitution was born, and the keystone of the Constitution is the House of Representatives. This body is the brain of the nation; on its floor all the momentous issues of the Republic have been settled; no higher office can a citizen win than a seat in the council of the Nation, none greater in the influence which it wields, not for America alone, but for the future of the human race.
The number of Representatives is decided by the census; which is taken every ten years. As soon as this is done Congress decides upon the number of Representatives for the ensuing decade. The number since the establishment of the Constitution has been as follows:
1789-1793.. 1793-1803. 1803-1813 1813-1823 1823–1833 1833–1843
65 1843–1853. 105 1853–1863 149 1863-1873.. 189 1873-1883 213 1883–1893. 240
223 237 243 293 3:25
These Congressmen are paid $5,000 a year, with certain additions in the shape of mileage, stationery, etc., etc. The qualifications of a Representative are fully explained in the Constitution.
MUSIC AND THE FINE ARTS.
The beings of the mind are not of clay,
Essentially immortal, they create
STRAY HINTS ON ART AND ARTISTS.
The name “Painter of Nature' was given to the French poet Bellean.
The harp is mentioned in Genesis (iv. 21), and is still in use and favor.
Sir W. Scott was wholly ignorant of pictures and quite indifferent to music.
In melodrama, strictly defined, music is always introduced into the dialogue.
Of late the term 'fine arts'' has become limited to painting and sculpture.
The art of cameo cutting reached its highest perfection in Greece and Rome,
The English artist Hogarth said that "genius is nothing but labor and diligence.”
Giovanni Cimabue of Florence (1240-1300) is called the Father of Modern Painters.
Goethe has said that "the first and last thing required of genius is the love of truth."
Stradivarius, who did so much to perfect the violin, lived in the seventeenth century.
Frescoes are of very great antiquity and have been found in Egypt, at Pompeii and elsewhere.