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NEW ENGLANDER

49 YALE REVIEW

AND

NULLIUS ADDICTUS JURARE IN VERBA MAGISTRI.

OCTOBER, 1888.

ART. I. The New Danger which threatens Russia.

William L. Kingsley, New Haven. II. Modern French Æsthetics.

D. Cady Eaton, New Haven. III. Architecture in America.

E. Gandolfo, New York City.

UNIVERSITY TOPICS. Sermon of President Dwight preached in the University Chapel on the first

Sunday of the Academical Year. Yale University Bulletin.

CURRENT LITERATURE. Principles and Practice of Morality. By Ezekiel Gilman Robinson, D.D., LL.D.-Christian Archæology. By Charles W. Bennett, D.D.-Sacred History from the Creation to the Giving of the Law. By Prof. Humphrey, D.D., LL.D.-Methods of Church Work. By Rev. Sylvanus Stall, A.M.The Book of Genesis. By Marcus Dodds, D.D.

NEW HAVEN:
WILLIAM L. KINGSLEY, PROPRIETOR.

Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor, Printers, 371 State Street.

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(MPERIAL GRANUM, W. C. WILE, M. D., in the New England Medical Monthly, January,

1888—"In the delicate conditions of the stomach, when every thing else has been rejected

I have saved many lives by giving IMPERIAL GRANUM. I consider this as one of the very best foods the physician can find to assist him in carrying through his patient to recovery; and I have found it of inestimable value in the later stages of Phthisis, Gastritis, Gastric Catarrh, Dyspepsia and Dysentery. It requires little effort of the stomach to digest and I have never known it to be rejected if properly prepared, given in small quantities and at frequent intervals. The great care used in its manufacture will lead the physician to expect the same product all the time, and we can assure him that he will never be disappointed, as we have fully tested it in our extended experience."

We speak from experience when we say that the IMPERIAL GRANUM is both safe and nutritious. It has been on the market for many years, and the largely increasing sales show that many others have found like results attending its use. The Christian Union, N. Y.

As a Medicinal Food IMPERIAL GRANUM, which is simply a solid extract from very superior growths of wheat, is unexcelled. It is easy of digestion, is not constipating, and is to-day the STANDARD DIETETIC preparation for invalids, for the aged, and for the very young.-- North American Journal of Homoeopathy, N. Y., Dec., '87.

IMPERIAL GRANUM has now been before the public for many years, and is generally admitted to be a standard preparation. There can be no doubt that this is due to its uniformly superior quality, and the successful results obtained with it in all cases where an artificial food is required. — Popular Science News, Boston, February, '88.

“IMPERIAL GRANUM.—A neighbor's child being very low, reduced, in fact, to a mere baby skeleton from want of nourishment, as nothing could be found which the child could retain, at the urgent request of friends the parents were induced to try IMPERIAL GRANUM, which proved such a benefit to the child it grew and thrived beyond all comprehension. At the same time I had a child sick with cholera infantum; on being presented with a box of Granum, with the high recommend from this neighbor, used it and continued its use to raise the child on, and I firmly believe this had all to do in saving the former child's life and the greater part in restoring my own child to health. A. C. G.”—Leonard's Illustrated Medical Journal, Detroit, Mich., Oct., '87.

P. VARNUM MOTT, M. D., Boston, Mass., in the Microcosm, New York, February, 1886.“There are numerous Foods that are much vaunted, and all have their adherents. The 'IMPERIAL GRANUM,' in my hands, seems to be all that is claimed for it, and experience has brought me to rely on its use where its special properties are indicated. In infantile diseases it has proved very efficacious, and I always direct its use when a child is being weaned."

The lives of untold thousands of infants have been saved by IMPERIAL GRANUM, and careful mothers are loud in their praises of this well known food, and pharmacists can safely recommend it.— Proceedings Illinois Pharmaceutal Association, 1887.

“On some other Planet there may be a better Dietetic Preparation than IMPERIAL GRANUM, but not on this."-" The American Analyst," New York.

SOLD BY DRUGGISTS.

JOHN CARLE & SONS, New York.

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ARTICLE 1.—THE NEW DANGER WHICH THREATENS

RUSSIA.

The Russian Peasantry: their agrarian condition, social life,

and religion. By STEPNIAK; author of “Russia under the Tsars”; the “Russian Storm-Cloud,” etc. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1888. 12 mo. pp. 401.

The great disturber of the peace of Europe and Asia is Russia. That one nation is a constant menace to

every
other

from Hecla to the Ganges.” Everywhere she is aggressive. In Asia, she is rapidly absorbing province after province. There is not a sheik in all the central region of that vast continent who is not in her pay, or who does not tremble as he marks the

progress of her armies. In Europe, her influence is everywhere exerted in favor of absolutism, and her statesmen do not hesitate to avow that it is the “historic destiny” of Russia to convert the Western nations to their own peculiar ideas of govern

16

VOL. XIII.

ment. Nothing is better known than that her aim has been for years to absorb the whole Turkish empire; and that all the resources of her diplomacy have been, and still are, directed to effect that coveted object. If she is successful—as an "old resident of Constantinople,” well known and honored in the United States, has recently warned the English people, in an Article in the Contemporary Review, with the title “Is Constantinople worth fighting for?”—if she is successful—in a month, a quarter of a million of bayonets would be added to the effective force of the armies of the Czar; an enormous revenue to support them would be extorted from the rich towns and villages of European and Asiatic Turkey, and the influence of the new and greatly enlarged Russia would be quadrupled in every cabinet in Europe. What government but would think twice before saying nay to any intimation that then came from St. Petersburg ?

If there is any doubt about the extent of the influence of Russia even to-day, let it be remembered that the people of Western Europe had scarcely ceased to applaud those brave words of Prince Bismarck, “We run after nobody," when he set himself against the marriage of the daughter of the Emperor Frederick to Prince Alexander for fear lest the Autocrat of the Russias might take offence! Almost the first official act of Emperor William was to pay a ceremonious visit to the Czar; and, on his return to Germany, we were told that he went straight to Varzin, where, on arriving at two o'clock in the morning, he was ushered into the bedroom of the Chancellor, who was roused from his slumbers that he might listen to an account of what had been said and done! What wonder that Figaro jeered, and, pointing the finger of scorn, announced that now for the first time in history it had come to pass that a German Emperor had gone in person to make an official report of his doings to his own prime minister!

It has long seemed as if there was nothing to stay the growth of the power of the Czar. We have been told that a large body of the educated classes among his subjects were dissatisfied, and were hoping for a constitutional government. But living under such a reign of terror there have been few who have even dared to avow their convictions publicly, and Mr. Kennan has

made us only too well acquainted with the sufferings which those few have had to endure. As long as eighty-two per cent. of the whole population of Russia proper are ignorant peasants who are religiously obedient to the Czar, what is there for him to fear? The taxes are collected, the conscripts for the army are each year forthcoming, and the government presents the same bold front to the world.

But rumors have for some time been coming to us that there is beginning to be a change in the condition of that vast inert mass of peasants. It is not the pleasing tidings that there is at last a manifestation of progress or improvement of any kind among them. What we have heard is more in keeping with the past terrible history of this strange people. The story is that the peasants, under the present regulations of the government, are actually dying from the want of proper and sufficient food. This very week there was a letter from a recent traveller published in one of the New York newspapers, which repeats this statement.

But we are not left to the reports of unknown newspaper correspondents. Mikhail Dragomanoff, formerly a Professor in the University of Kiev, who was driven into exile in 1876 for political offenses, has written the book whose title we have placed at the head of this Article, to make known to the world the present condition of the Russian peasantry. Dragomanoff has, before this, written several books under the nom de plume of “Stepniak," and has shown that he has a thorough understanding of all that pertains to the interior condition of his native land. He writes dispassionately, and has long been recognized as a trustworthy authority. He says that, in the thirteen provinces which comprise Central Russia, “the mortality, always on the increase, reached when the last census was taken (1882), sixty-two per thousand per annum! Nothing approaching this prevails in any other part of Europe. It would be incredible, were it not officially attested. The birthrate in these provinces being forty-five (the normal rate for the whole empire), this is equal to a decrease of seventeen per thousand per year. In the heart of Russia the population is being starved out! The medical report, moreover, notices that the provinces where the mortality is greatest are those where

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