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Data comprise sales of confectionery and competitive chocolate products by manufacturer-wholesalers, manufacturer-retailers (beginning 1956, reported at f.o.b. factory level rather than at retail level), and chocolate manufacturers making consumer-type confectionery items such as chocolate bars, etc. The figures do not include sales of chocolate coatings or cocoa by chocolate manufacturers or sales by retail confectioners with a single business location. The figures represent estimates of industry totals based on reported data, except those for 1953 and 1957, which are from complete canvasses of the confectionery manufacturing establishments. In the 1957 survey, data for both 1956 and 1957 were collected.

For 1947, the annual total is from the 1947 Census of Manufactures. Monthly estimates for 1947 were first calculated from the January 1947 dollar sales of a group of companies by applying month-to-month percentage changes indicated by reporting companies. These estimates were then raised to the level indicated by the 1947 Census total. Beginning 1948, the estimated industry totals have been derived from sales reported by manufacturing companies which accounted for 85 percent of the total dollar value of confectionery sales in 1953 (90 percent in 1973).

The figures beginning January 1956 are not comparable with those through 1955. As noted above, the values in 1956 and thereafter as reported by the manufacturer-retailer group are at f.o.b. factory level instead of the retail level, which was used through 1955. Valued at the retail level, sales in 1956 accounted for 11.6 percent of total sales of confectionery manufacturers, compared with 8.1 percent when valued at f.o.b. factory level.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1949-70 (except as noted below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Monthly data for 1947, 1948, and 1956 are available upon request. 8

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. These data represent the total holdings of frozen fish (including shellfish), both fresh-water and salt-water species, in cold-storage warehouses in the United States (including Alaska); stocks of salted and smoked fish are not included. The figures through 1953 cover stocks as of the 1st of the month following that for which data are shown; thereafter, as of the end of the month. The monthly reports give details as to holdings and the amount of fish frozen each month.

Annual data for 1947 and monthly data for 1929-70 (except as noted below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Revisions (thousands of pounds): 1930-September, 85,358; October, 88,603; November, 91,872; December, 85,323; 1931 - June, 39,384; July, 48,445; October, 73,144; 1942-December, 98,260; 1962-January, 179,935.

Beginning July 1960, data include both quota and nonquota charges. The data include shipments from Puerto Rico, Hawaii, the Virgin Islands, Cuba (quotas restricted beginning July 1960) and other foreign countries, and, through March 1942 and beginning 1948, from the Philippine Islands.

The data for entries from offshore areas differ from the imports of raw and refined sugar for consumption on this page compiled by the Bureau of the Census, largely in that the latter are as reported (without conversion to equivalent raw sugar of uniform polarization) and do not include receipts from the Virgin Islands.

Stocks include refiners' raw and refined stocks, stocks of beet processors and of importers of direct-consumption sugar, stocks of mainland sugarcane processors, and (through 1952) importers' raw stocks.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1941-70 (except for revisions noted below, production for 1941-50 and 1955-56, and entries from Hawaii and Puerto Rico for 1941-44; available upon request) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Revisions of the December figures for specified years for entries from offshore areas are as follows (tons): Total (1943-52)-366,924; 463,360; 197,480; 258,452; 384,995; 209,814; 316,226; 202,277; 172,904; 195,042; Hawaii and Puerto Rico (1945-52)-97,101; 49,880; 44,663; 79,244; 309,517; 84,629; 164,620; 124,414. The figure for stocks for January 1949 should read 1,347,617 tons.

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Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. For a general explanation of foreign trade data, as well as information on sampling procedures effective with data for July 1953 and thereafter, see note 1 for p. 109.

The data for sugar, originally reported in pounds, have been converted to short tons; figures in the 1942 and earlier issues of the SUPPLEMENT are in long tons and should be converted to short tons for comparison with figures shown beginning with the 1947 volume. Exports of sugar cover both raw and refined (including cane, beet, maple, brown, granulated, powdered, cubes, etc., but not including corn, grape, or flavoring sugar). Shipments under the Army Civilian Supply Program are included.

Data for sugar imports are for cane and beet sugar and represent imports for consumption for all years. Raw sugar represents all sugar testing not above 99° by the polariscope, except that certain taxable amounts polarizing not over 99° but above 98° and not subject to further manufacture (reported separately since 1957) are classified as refined, together with all sugar polarizing above 99o. Refined sugar tinctured, colored, or adulterated is not included through August 1963; beginning September 1963, small amounts are included (such imports totaled 105 tons in 1962).

Data for tea are imports for consumption.

Annual data prior to 1947 and (except for revisions noted below) monthly data for exports of sugar (1929-70), for imports of sugar (1936-70; except 1947, available upon request), and for imports of tea (1929-70) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Revisions for sugar imports (short tons): total raw-1946-March, 320,906; June, 194,523; 1957-March, 351,128; April, 330,259; 1958-March, 456,557; April, 411,065; June, 425,368; July, 442,816; August 326,003; refined sugar-1945 (October), 35,029; 1957–March, 64,734; April, 50,871; 1958-March, 45,478; April, 51,680; June, 51,083; July, 36,264; August, 45,169. The December 1946 figure for tea imports should read 11,641,000 pounds.

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Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Data are compiled from reports by cane-sugar refiners, beet-sugar processors, importers of direct consumption sugar, and mainland sugar-cane processors.

The figures cover both

raw and refined sugar in terms of raw sugar (96° equivalent). One ton of 96 test raw sugar is assumed to be equivalent to 0.9346 ton of refined.

Production represents production of domestic cane and domestic beet sugar. Deliveries represent the distribution of sugar by primary distributors. Deliveries for domestic consumption include deliveries for U.S. military forces at home and abroad.

Data for entries from offshore areas are secured from reports from the importers and, through June 1960, represent the amounts charged

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. The wholesale price for raw sugar is for cane, 96 polarization, duty paid, bulk, no quantity specified, market price, importer to refiner, c.i.f. New York (the note in the 1940 SUPPLEMENT erroneously states that duty was excluded).

The wholesale price for refined sugar is the quotation for cane, granulated, domestic, in 100 pound paper bags, f.o.b. New York. The excise tax of 0.535 cents per pounds (in effect from September 1, 1937 to date) is included through 1956 are excluded thereafter.

Monthly prices through 1951 are averages of the 4 or 5 Tuesday prices in the month; annual figures are the averages of the weekly quotations. Beginning 1952 prices are quotation averages for one day each month (usually in the week containing the 15th); annual data are averages of these midmonth quotations.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1929-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. I of

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of BUSINESS STATISTICS, but they are not entirely comparable over the period.

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Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Prices are for 1-pound packages of colored margarine and, beginning September 1960, are manufacturers' prices to wholesaler or large retailer, delivered (prior thereto, manufacturer to retailer, delivered, eastern United States).

Monthly data for 1955-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. The retail prices are for granulated cane sugar and are obtained around the 15th of each month from a sample of chain and independent retail food dealers in New York City and vicinity (New York City only through 1952; New York City and Newark, N.J., for January-June 1953; New York City and northeastern New Jersey beginning July 1953).

Prices shown in the 1953 and later editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS are per 5 pounds; in earlier volumes they are for 1 pound. Original quotations were in 10-pound bags through 1949; since 1950, the original quotations have been for 5 pounds. The change in poundage on which original quotations are based affects the comparability of the series to some extent.

Beginning January 1964, data reflect changes in samples and processing procedures adopted with the “new” consumer price index. A detailed explanation of these appears in the Labor Department release, Estimated Retail Food Prices by Cities, a special issue containing prices for December 1963-June 1964.

Beginning July 1967, prices are on a 1967 benchmark and are not entirely comparable with those for earlier periods. July 1967 price on old basis is $0.631 compared with $0.623 on the new; the 1967 annual price is based on July-December data. Beginning January 1969 and each subsequent January, special benchmark averages are computed by BLS and are used to compute estimated average prices for succeeding months within each year. The difference between the estimated average price for January of any given year (based upon the previous year's benchmark) and the new January benchmark average is so small that comparability is not appreciably affected.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1938-70 (except as indicated below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Note qualifications mentioned above and that the earlier published figures should be converted to price per 5 pounds for comparability with the present series.

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Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Except as otherwise noted, the statistics relate to factory production, factory consumption in end products, and factory and warehouse stocks of animal, and vegetable fats and oils. Establishments canvassed in order to secure information on production, consumption, and stocks are as follows: (1) Vegetable oil mills, which produce crude vegetable oils; (2) plants producing refined vegetable oils (alkali or caustic washed oils), shortening, margarine, salad or cooking oils, and specially formulated edible oils; (3) plants using fats and oils in such industrial products as soap, paint, varnish, linoleum, oilcloth, lubricants, animal feeds, resins, plastics, or other products containing substantial amounts of fats and oils; (4) plants using fats or oils as agents in the production of other products such as tin plate, textiles, leather, etc.; (5) plants that render animal fats into edible tallow, and inedible tallow and grease, either as their chief operation or as an adjunct to meatpacking; (6) warehouses storing fats and oils, including public warehouses.

The reported factory production represents the total output in the United States of the specified fats and oils and, except as otherwise stated, is in the crude state. However, in the case of some animal fats such as tallow and grease, factory production does not represent total production because considerable quantities of these products are produced on farms and by local butchers, wholesale trade establishments, and small renderers not included in the establishments canvassed.

The data for consumption include only the consumption in factories and do not, therefore, represent total consumption in all instances. Considerable quantities of some fats and oils are consumed outside of factories, e.g., in homes, restaurants, hotels, and bakeries, and by packagers, painters, building contractors, and machine shops. Through 1958, consumption data shown here relate to primary products only; beginning January 1959, under new reporting procedures, they are in terms of basic oils moving into specified end products and include undisclosed amounts of further processed oils.

Stocks include quantities held by and in transit to producers, factory consumers, and public storages, regardless of ownership, including quantities held for the Government. Stocks in the possession of household consumers and stocks held in private storage by retailers, wholesalers, and jobbers are not included. In some instances, stocks may include some imports not withdrawn from bonded warehouses. Beginning January 1959, stocks of oils are in terms of basic oils (crude and once-refined) and end products only. If a further processed oil has not been converted into a specified end product, it is included among the stocks of the oil from which it originated.

Since July 1949, producers and consumers of relatively small quantities of fats and oils have been required to file annual reports only. The omission of these small companies does not affect the monthly totals by more than 1 percent in most cases; the monthly figures are adjusted to an estimated 100 percent based on records of operations during the preceding year. The number of small companies reporting on an annual basis has increased from 1,000 in 1949 to approximately 2,000 in 1973.

Figures appearing in this volume and in the SURVEY OF CURRENT BUSINESS are for selected individual products; data for additional products are included in the current monthly and annual reports of the Bureau of the Census. Data have been collected monthly since July 1942; prior thereto, they were on a quarterly basis. Annual figures shown beginning with the 1965 edition of BUSINESS STATISTICS are end-of-year data, or totals for the year; in the 1947-63 editions they are monthly averages unless otherwise indicated in the notes to the figures. Annual figures in volumes prior to 1947 are quarterly averages.

Annual data prior to 1947 and (with exceptions mentioned below) monthly or quarterly data for 1932-70 (for edible tallow and inedible tallow and grease, 1953-70; corn oil, 1956-70; soybean oil, 1938-70) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Monthly or quarterly data for 1932-52 for edible tallow and inedible tallow and grease; for 1932-37 for soybean

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Sources: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Internal Revenue (for margarine production through June 1949).

Baking or frying fats are defined as products that meet all the following conditions: (1) Have been manufactured from vegetable oils or meat fats or combinations thereof; (2) have been deodorized or hydrogenated and deodorized; (3) contain a significant amount of glycerides solid at room temperature; (4) are produced and sold entirely or primarily for baking or frying purposes. Oils liquid at room temperature and oils used in margarine are not included. Baking or frying fats include amounts formerly reported as “shortening” (see 1959 edition of BUSINESS STATISTICS for 1929-58 data for shortening).

Salad or cooking oils are defined as products meeting all the following conditions: (1) Have been manufactured from vegetable oils; (2) have been deodorized or winterized and deodorized; (3) are completely liquid at room temperature. Margarine refers only to the finished product ready for table use or for use by bakers.

Annual data prior to 1947 for margarine production and monthly data for 1959-70 for baking or frying fats and salad or cooking oils and for 1929-70 for margarine production appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). The July and August 1931 figures for margarine production should read 11,380,000 and 15,999,000 pounds respectively. Monthly data back to 1949 for margarine stocks are published in the 1959 and earlier editions

oil; and for 1959-70 for coconut oil, refined are available upon request; monthly or quarterly data for 1938-55 for corn oil will be found in annual reports of the Bureau of the Census. Monthly consumption data for 1957 and 1958 comparable with the annual data shown here for cottonseed and soybean oils (omitted in the 1961 edition of BUSINESS STATISTICS because of changes in reporting procedures) are available upon request. Revisions: Cottonseed oil (millions of pounds), crude production (October-December 1956), 242.0 ; 230.2; 193 1. 4

Edible tallow production and stocks for all years include refined gades; the consumption figures exclude quantities used in refining except in 1949-54, when such quantities are included.

Effective January 1949, data are included for 45 plants producing inedible tallow and 23 plants producing greases that did not previously report. Prior to 1949, data include certain quantities of refined tallow (in collection of the data, no distinction was made between “rendered” and “refined"). Beginning January 1958, data include refined quantities (formerly excluded); amounts used in refining are excluded from the data for consumption.

As indicated by information obtained in the 1963 Census of Manufactures, monthly production data for 1963 was understated. This resulted chiefly from omission of plants from the monthly fats and oils surveys. Reports have been obtained from these plants and the data for 1964 reflect the production level measured in the 1963 Census of Manufactures. Beginning 1965, an estimate is included in the monthly figures to account for the small producers who do not report.

of prime, summer, yellow, bleachable cottonseed oil. For the period 1949-July 1959 the price is for refined, edible, drums, 1.c.l., f.o.b. New York; for the period August 1959-May 1964, the price is quoted on a carlot basis rather than 1.c.l. Beginning June 1964, the data represent the tank car price per pound. Beginning July 1970, data represent cottonseed oil, refined, salad oil, in jumbo tanks (150,000 lbs.), spot price, f.o.b. New York, Friday price, pound.

Beginning October 1973, data are for cottonseed oil, salad, jumbo tanks, f.o.b. New York, Tuesday, per pound. Through 1951 the data are quotation averages for 1 day each week. Beginning with 1952 the prices are quotation averages for 1 day each month (usually in the week containing the 15th).

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1929-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

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p. 142.

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Data beginning August 1959 are not comparable with those for earlier periods; see note 4 for this page. The 1959 price is average of 5 months, August-December.

11 Data include amounts no longer required for the strategic stockpile.

12 Beginning June 1964, data are not comparable with those for earlier periods. The specifications have changes from "in returnable drums, carlots," to "tank cars.” The 1964 average is for 7 months, June-December.

Averages for 11 months; no quotations for October 1965 nor for November 1967.

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12 See note 2 for this page regarding change affecting comparability of data. Price is average of 4 months, September-December.

13 Beginning January 1962, data are not comparable with those for earlier periods; consumption for feed is based on renderers' shipments instead of feed mill reports as formerly.

Average for 3 months, October-December; data not strictly comparable with those for prior periods.

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Effective with this edition of BUSINESS STATISTICS, data are restated to exclude stocks of crude coconut oil and are not comparable with those shown in the 1973 and earlier editions. See also 7th paragraph of note 3 for p. 142 regarding availability of data. 3

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data for coconut oil imports are for consumption. For a general explanation of foreign trade data, as well as information on sampling procedures effective with data for July 1953, see note 1 for p. 109.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1931-70 for imports of coconut oil and for 1961-70 for exports of cottonseed and soybean oils appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Exports for cottonseed and soybean oils for periods prior to 1961 may be obtained from Bureau of Census reports. Note that in the 1957 and earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS data for imports of coconut oil were shown in thousands of pounds.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Through July 1959, the series covers soybean oil, refined, edible, returnable drums, less than carlot, f.o.b. New York. From August 1959 through May 1964, the prices are quoted on a carlot basis. From June 1964 through September 1973 the data represent tank car price per pound; beginning October 1973, the series covers soybean oil, refined, salad, tanks, Decatur, Tuesday, per pound.

Data through 1951 are quotation averages for 1 day each week; beginning 1952, the prices shown are quotation averages for 1 day each month (usually in the week containing the 15th).

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1938-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

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Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data through 1948 represent the tank car price per pound at New York

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Consumer and Marketing Service. Data represent stocks of leaf tobacco in the United

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Data beginning August 1959 are not comparable with those for earlier periods (see note 3 for this page). The 1959 price is an average for 5 months, August-December.

12 Beginning June 1964, data are not comparable with those for earlier periods; see note 3 for this page regarding change in specifications. The 1964 average is for 7 months, June-December.

Average for 3 months, October-December; data not entirely comparable with those for prior periods (see note 3 for this page).

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States and Puerto Rico (on a farm-sales-weight basis) reported as owned by all leaf tobacco dealers, manufacturers, quasi-manufacturers, growers' cooperative associations, warehousemen, brokers, holders, and owners (except the original growers of tobacco, and manufacturers who according to the returns of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue manufactured less than 35,000 pounds of tobacco, less than 185,000 cigars, or less than 750,000 cigarettes during the first three quarters of the preceding calendar year). All Government loan stocks are included as dealer holdings. Growers are not reuqired to report their stocks under the law. Data are on an ownership basis, i.e., they include stocks actually owned by those enumerated above. Data by type of tobacco are available from reports of the Tobacco Division, Consumer and Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

All data on domestic stemmed tobacco have been converted to an unstemmed basis and the unstemmed is further converted to a farm-sales weight by allowing for normal shrinkage and losses of dirt, sand, and moisture in handling. Each type of tobacco has a different yield; the conversion factors used in these computations are shown in the quarterly Tobacco Stocks Report, issued by the Tobacco Division of the Department of Agriculture. Foreign data are converted to an unstemmed basis, and since the weight at time of entry is analogous to the farm-sales weight of domestic types, they can be combined directly with the data for domestic types on a farm-sales-weight basis. Data are reported as of the first of April, July, October, and January, and have been moved back to the last day of the preceding month for presentation in the SURVEY OF CURRENT BUSINESS.

End-of-year data prior to 1947 and end-of-quarter data for 1938-70 (except for minor revisions for March 1949-June 1952; MarchSeptember 1956; and March 1960-September 1962, which are available upon request) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). 6

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data for leaf tobacco represent total exports or imports of unmanufactured tobacco, including stems, trimmings, and scrap. Exports include shipments under the Army Civilian Supply Program. Imports represent imports for consumption. For a general explanation of foreign trade data, as well as information on sampling procedures effective with data for July 1953 and thereafter, see note 1 for p. 109.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1929-70 (except for revisions given below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Revisions (leaf tobacco, in thousands of pounds; cigarettes, in thousands): Leaf tobacco exports-1931 - April, 46,829; August, 23,107; September, 44,958; October, 49,155; 1939-January, 28,013; 1946-March, 52,219; December, 60,164; leaf tobacco imports-1931-March, 10,417; cigarette exports-1930-November, 251,514; December, 338,916; 1931-March, 338,308; November, 219,328; 1932-January, 190,833.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. In addition to the two items shown separately, total exports of hides and skins include sheep and lamb skins, alligator, antelope, deer, doe, elk, fish, gazelle, goat, hog, kangaroo, kid, lizard, reptile, and wallaby and seal (except fur) skins; ass, buffalo, caribou, colt, donkey, horse, moose, mule, peccary, pony, shark, and walrus hides; and hides and skins not elsewhere specified. Data for calf and kip skins and cattle hides are in thousands of pieces prior to 1952; thereafter, in thousands of skins or hides. For a general explanation of foreign trade data, as well as information on sampling procedures effective with data for July 1953 and thereafter, see note 1 for p. 109.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1955-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

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Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data represent imports for consumption. For a general explanation of foreign trade data, as well as information on sampling procedures effective with data for July 1953 and thereafter, see note 1 for p. 109.

In addition to the two items shown separately, total imports of hides and skins include cattle, buffalo, India water buffalo, horse, colt, ass, and mule, and carpincho hides; calf and kip, hair sheep and cabretta, kangaroo and wallaby, deer, buck or doe, reptile, seal (except fur), fish and shark, carpincho, and wild pig and hog skins; and hids and skins not elsewhere specified.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1954-70 for the total value and 1938-70 for sheep and lamb skins and goat and kid skins (except minor revisions for 1946 and 1950) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

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Source: U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Tax-exempt withdrawals include withdrawals of small cigarettes (those weighing not more than 3 pounds per thousand) for the following purposes: Export, use of the United States (including sea stores), personal consumption, and beginning July 1961, for experimental purposes.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for July 1943 through December 1970 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). No data by months are available prior to July 1943. Data shown here through 1958 represent revised totals and differ slightly in some cases from the sum of the monthly figures, which are from current reports and are not revised.

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Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. The series on calfskin prices is for packer, heavy, 942-15 pounds, f.o.b. shipping point. Hide prices are for steer, heavy, native, over 53 pounds, f.o.b. shipping point. Through 1951 the prices shown are quotation averages for 1 day each week; thereafter, they are quotation averages for 1 day each month (beginning January 1967, the Tuesday of the week in which the 13th of the month falls; for 1952-66, Tuesday of the week containing the 15th of the month).

Monthly data for 1949-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section); monthly data for 1947-48 are available upon request.

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Source: U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Data represent taxable withdrawals from domestic factories and are based

the number of stamps used by manufacturers. Small cigarettes (i.e., those weighing not more than 3 pounds per thousand) represent over 99 percent of the total production of cigarettes; large cigars (i.e., those weighing more than 3 pounds per thousand) have accounted for 94 to 99 percent of the total production of cigars during the period covered here.

Data shown here through 1958 represent revised totals and, in some cases, differ slightly from the sum of the monthly figures which are from current reports and are not revised.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1944-70 for cigarettes and 1951-70 for cigars appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

Source: Tanners' Council of America, Inc. Data are for the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii). They are based on reports received from practically the entire industry and are adjusted to an industry basis. Data for production of sheep and lamb leather include, for all years the flesh side leather of split sheepskins (fleshers) and exclude the grain leather (skivers).

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1941-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of

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Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are based on prices covering specifications as follows: Men's and boys' class-oxfords, dress, elk or side upper, Goodyear welt; women's class-(1) oxfords, elk side upper, Goodyear welt; (2) pumps, low-medium quality.

Through 1951, the indexes are based on prices for 1 day each week; thereafter, on prices for 1 day each month (beginning January 1967, the Tuesday of the week in which the 13th of the month falls; for 1952-66, the Tuesday of the week containing the 15th).

Monthly data for 1959-66 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section); monthly data for 1967-70 are in the 1971 edition, 1947-58 are available upon request.

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Beginning 1950, data exclude military-type shoes, etc.

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Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. The data represent exports of all leather, except sole and rough (lining leather included beginning 1958 only). The total covers sheep and lamb glove and garment leather; pig and hog leather; and antelope, ass, bovine, buckskin, buffalo, cabretta, calf, capeskin, caribou, cattle, colt, cordovan, deerskin, dik-dik, doeskin, elk, gazelle, goat, horsehide, kid, kip, mule, ranchhide, raindeer, and zebra leather. Also covered are cattle and kip side upper leather (grain and splits); calf and whole kip (grain and other) upper leather; goat and kid upper leather; sheep and lamb upper and lining leather; cattle and kip side patent upper leather; and other upper leather (including lining and patent) not elsewhere specified. The data prior to 1958 do not include lining leather; such exports amounted to 1,700,000 square feet in 1956 and 2,443,000 square feet in 1957.

Monthly data for 1955 and July 1956-December 1970 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (in the 1967 and earlier editions, the “glove and garment leather” should be added to the "upper and lining leather” to arrive at the total export figure).

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Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data for sole leather are based on prices for cattle hide, light bends, under 8 iron, vegetable tan, tannery run.

Through 1951, the indexes are based on prices for 1 day each week; thereafter, on prices for 1 day each month (beginning January 1967, the Tuesday of the week in which the 13th of the month falls; for 1952-66, Tuesday of the week containing the 15th).

Monthly data for 1967-70 are in the 1971 edition, 1947-66 are available upon request.

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Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data are compiled from reports of manufacturers and, are estimates representing the operations of all known manufacturers of shoes and slippers. Beginning with 1962, the figures have been adjusted upward to the level of production indicated by the 1963 Census of Manufactures, representing the total known output of over-the-foot footwear.

Beginning with 1965, substantial changes were introduced into the detailed classification of footwear as a result of recommendations of the Interagency Shoe Committee and the Shoe Manufacturers Industry Advisory Committee. These changes affect the comparability of earlier data with those beginning 1965. However, the totals shown are directly comparable.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1953-70 and 1941-46 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Revised monthly data for 1947-52 are available upon request. 4

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Effective January 1965, data reflect adoption of revised export schedule and cover exports of new boots, shoes, and other footwear (including men's, youths' and boys', women's, misses', children's, infants’, house slippers, including moccasins for housewear, and footwear, n.e.c., including athletic footwear); beginning July 1950, exports of military-type shoes, etc., are excluded.

Beginning 1947, data include shipments under the Army Civilian Supply Program; such shipments amounted to 73,400 pairs of boots and shoes in that year. For a general explanation of foreign trade data,

Source: National Forest Products Association (data compiled for NFPA by MacKay-Shields Economics, Inc.). Data for all years are estimated industry totals (including Alaska and Hawaii beginning January 1961 and January 1963, respectively) based on monthly reports from regional associations. The figures relate essentially to the operations of sawmills and planing mills (general); they include rough, dressed (surfaced), and worked lumber (i.e., lumber that, in addition to being dressed, has been matched, shiplapped, or patterned). Data for separately operated flooring mills are not included (see p. 149 for hardwood flooring data).

Production and shipments data are adjusted to conform with annual production figures published by the Bureau of the Census for all years except 1948-51, 1955-56, 1962-70. The Census Bureau made no annual survey in 1948; for the years 1949-51, 1955-56, and 1962-70, the data for the eastern regions are adjusted to Census figures, but for some of the western regions and for total softwood and total lumber production no adjustment was made. Figures for 1973 and 1974 are subject to revision when Census data for those years become available.

Coverage of mill reports varies widely from region to region and, for the country as a whole, has declined from around 75 percent of estimated total lumber production in 1935 to an average of 55 percent in recent years; coverage of reports on stocks is less inclusive than for production and shipments.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data (except for stocks) for 1949, and 1961-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Revised monthly production and shipments for 1950 and stocks for 1948-50 are available upon request. Revised monthly data for production and shipments for 1954 appear on p. 24 of the November 1957 SURVEY OF CURRENT BUSINESS; those for 1951-60 are on p. 28 of the January 1964 SURVEY. Most of the monthly data in the 1951 and earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS have been revised in varying degrees. These revised monthly (or quarterly) data for 1929-48 are published in the August 1950 Statistical Supplement issue of the Lumber Industry Report (prepared by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Industry and Commerce).

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