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production of ammonia. Also excludes amounts produced by the ammonia dissociation process (cracking of ammonia). None of this gas is shipped or transferred for methanol production.

Beginning January 1959, data include high purity (99.5-100%) hydrogen and are not comparable with those for earlier periods which cover lower purity (less than 99.5%) only.

Beginning January 1969, data exclude amounts produced in petroleum refineries for captive use and are not comparable with those for earlier periods. 5

Low purity nitrogen (less than 99.5%) included beginning January 1971. Data exclude amounts produced and consumed in the manufacture of synthetic ammonia or ammonia derivatives.

16 Beginning January 1970, data include lower purity (less than 99.5%) oxygen and are not comparable with those for earlier periods. Separate data are not available for low purity oxygen.

17 Beginning January 1971, data include lower purity (less than 99.5%) nitrogen and are not comparable with those for earlier periods.

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Low purity oxygen (less than 99.5%) included beginning January 1970.

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Source: U.S. International Trade Commission (formerly U.S. Tariff Commission), with the exception of data for creosote oil production by coke-oven operators, which are from the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines and glycerin production which are furnished by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data cover estimated industry totals of the specified product and include production for sale and for consumption, if any, in the producing plants. Except for ethyl acetate, formaldehyde, and (prior to 1956) creosote oil, the products are reported on the basis of 100% content of the specified material.

Data for creosote oil cover oil (for wood preserving purposes only) produced by tar distillers and coke-oven operators. Amounts included for tar distillers represent production from purchased coal tar only or from oil-gas or water-gas tar produced or purchased by tar distillers. Beginning 1956, data are reported on the basis of 100% creosote content; prior thereto, the amounts reported by coke-oven operators include some solution. Beginning January 1965, data exclude creosote oil in coal-tar solutions (formerly included); this amounted to 11,158,000 gallons in 1964.

Any difference between the annual data shown and the sum of published monthly data are the result of revised annual totals, for which there are no corresponding monthly revisions.

In the 1955 and earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS, glycerin data were shown separately for high gravity and yellow distilled and for chemically pure glycerin; they should be combined for comparability with data in later editions.

Effective with the 1969 BUSINESS STATISTICS, methanol production data cover synthetic only. Data published in the 1967 and 1965 BUSINESS STATISTICS are for natural and synthetic methanol combined; and, in the 1963 and earlier editions the two components were shown separately.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1943-70 (1951-70 for formaldehyde, 1941-70 for glycerin, 1939-70 for methanol, on bases described above) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Monthly data for 1946-50 for formaldehyde are available upon request. 8

In the 1973 BUSINESS STATISTICS the unit reads "millions of gallons;" it should read “thousands of gallons."

Source: U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Data for operations, as defined below, represent complete U.S. coverage (including Hawaii and Puerto Rico; no pertinent operations in Alaska).

Production figures are net, i.e., gross production (original production plus production by redistillation) minus the quantity used in redistillation. Through June 1960, the production figures relate to production of ethyl alcohol by industrial alcohol plants. Beginning with July 1960, the figures cover alcohol and spirits produced by facilities of distilled spirits plants.

It should be noted that in 1960 the industrial alcohol plant, registered distillery, fruit distillery, alcohol bonded warehouse, internal revenue bonded warehouse, distillery denaturing bonded warehouse, denaturing plant, rectifying plant, and taxpaid bottling house were redesignated as distilled spirits plant and its facilities; see Public Law 85-859.

Quantities for denaturation represent "withdrawals” of ethyl alcohol for denaturation. Beginning July 1950, data represent products "used” for denaturation, i.e., domestic ethyl alcohol, imported ethyl alcohol, and spirits (except rum). Since July 1950 denaturing plants have been permitted to store ethyl alcohol for purposes other than denaturation; therefore, alcohol used for denaturation has been reported in lieu of withdrawals for denaturation.

Figures through June 1960 for taxable (or taxpaid) withdrawals are those reported as withdrawals of ethyl alcohol from industrial alcohol bonded warehouses. Beginning with July 1960, the figures represent withdrawals of alcohol and spirits from bonded premises of distilled spirits plants.

In addition to the taxable withdrawals and tax-free quantities withdrawn for denaturation, various quantities are withdrawn tax-free for hospital, scientific, and educational use; for use of the United States; to foreign-trade zones; and for use in Puerto Rico (under permits issued) for medicinal, beverage, and other purposes. These transactions, of course, affect the stock figures (referred to below); stocks are also affected by losses.

Stock figures through June 1960 are those reported for ethyl alcohol at industrial alcohol bonded warehouses and denaturing plants. Beginning with July 1960, the data represent alcohol and spirits in bonded storage at distilled spirits plants, including stocks in denaturing facilities of these plants.

A tax gallon for spirits of 100 proof or over is equal to the proof gallon (for spirits of less than 100 proof it is equal to a wine gallon). A proof gallon is the alcoholic equivalent of a wine gallon (231 cubic inches) at 60°F., containing 50 percent of ethyl alcohol by volume. “Proof” is the ethyl alcohol content of a liquid at 60° F., stated as twice the percent of ethyl alcohol by volume. Data shown in earlier volumes are expressed in proof gallons, which, for all data covered here, are synonymous with tax gallons.

More complete data for alcohol and spirits, including details by States, are available in annual reports entitled Alcohol and Tobacco Summary Statistics, published by the source.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1934-70 for the series, as described, appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

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Source: U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Data cover operations of all denaturing plants in the United States, including plants in Puerto Rico and Hawaii; there are no plants in Alaska. The figures include completely denatured and specially denatured alcohol produced from domestic alcohol and spirits and also from alcohol imported under authority of the Revenue Act of 1942. Figures for withdrawals represent removals from plants and include amounts shipped to bonded dealers.

A wine gallon is a U.S. gallon of liquid measure equivalent to the

14 See 2d paragraph of note 7 for this page regarding exclusion of

Data by States, withdrawals classified according to formulas, amounts used in manufacturing, etc., are contained in annual reports entitled Alcohol and Tobacco Summary Statistics, published by the source.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1934-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

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Source: U.S. International Trade Commission (formerly U.S. Tariff Commission). Plastics and resin materials are products resulting from the condensation or polymerization of organic chemicals in combination with fillers, plasticizers, coloring agents, and extenders. At some stage in their manufacture they are in such physical condition that they can be shaped or processed by the application of heat and pressure. Phenolic (thermosetting) resins become permanently rigid upon the application of heat, whereas, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl (thermoplastic) resins are those that become plastic upon the application of heat, rigid at normal temperatures, and plastic upon each reapplication of heat.

Data represent total quantities produced for consumption within the same plant, for transfer to other plants of the same company, and for sale. Although there have been some changes in reporting companies and in components of the specified items, comparability of the data, in most instances, has not been materially affected. To avoid disclosing the operations of individual companies, data for some periods are not available for publication.

Data for all plastic and resin materials, except for polyvinyl resins, are on a dry basis (defined as total weight of the material including resin, plasticizers, fillers, extenders, colors, and stabilizers, but excluding the weight of water, solvents, and other liquid diluents). Polyvinyl resins (with the exception of sheeting and film prior to 1951) are reported on a resin-content basis-i.e., they exclude fillers, plasticizers, extenders, solvents, and liquids.

Annual totals for all years reflect revisions not distributed to the months. Monthly data for 1948-70 except as noted below, appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Monthly data are available for polyethylene resins beginning 1955, and for polypropylene beginning 1963.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1941-61 and quarterly data for 1962-70 except as noted below appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Monthly data for 1957 do not reflect revisions included in the annual total shown. Data in the 1942 and earlier volumes include black blasting powder.

1° Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data from 1951 forward represent estimates of total factory shipments of finished paint, varnish, and lacquer products, based on figures obtained from a sample designed to measure total activity of the industry in the United States. Effective with the 1968 data, there are 310 companies in the sample.

Beginning with data for January 1963, the estimates are derived from a sample consisting of a panel of respondents selected on the basis of information reported in the 1958 Census of Manufactures and from other sources. These estimates indicate a higher level of activity than those previously published, and are not comparable with those for earlier periods.

A change was made in reporting procedure, effective with data for January 1961, whereby the respondents were instructed to report actual receipts from sales, instead of sales on f.o.b. basis as formerly. A number of the larger companies had already been reporting actual sales; thus the effect on comparability is limited.

The estimates beginning with January 1958 are not comparable with earlier estimates because of (1) the use of data from a new panel of respondents based on information reported in the 1954 Census of Manufactures and from other sources, yielding higher and more accurate estimates than those from the previous sample; and (2) the fact that the definitions of “trade products” and “industrial finishes" were changed to relate to specific products and not, as formerly, to customer classification (trade and industrial). For example, "trade products," as currently defined, are stock-type commodities generally distributed through wholesale-retail channels, whereas the term “industrial finishes” relates to products specifically formulated to meet the conditions of application and use of the article to which applied (and are generally applied as part of the manufacturing process). The monthly data for 1958-60 reflect revisions resulting from a reconciliation of the monthly survey with the 1958 Census of Manufactures.

The estimated total factory sales from 1952 through 1957 are based on data from a sample of approximately 250 companies comprising about 375 establishments. The estimated totals for 1951 were derived from the 1952 estimates and changes in shipments for those companies for which both 1951 and 1952 information was available. Because of the method of deriving the 1951 estimates, definite information concerning their reliability is not available.

Monthly data for 1951-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note p. 1 of this section).

11 Protective coatings are included beginning 1951 (prior thereto, not separately available); production in 1951 averaged 1,844,000 pounds per month.

12 Data beginning January 1958 are not comparable with earlier data; see 4th paragraph of note 10 for this page.

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Data (shown in the 1971 and previous editions as vinyl resins, resin content basis) cover resins for film, sheeting, molding and extrusion, textile and paper coating and treating, flooring, adhesives, and other uses and, beginning 1951, protective coatings. Beginning 1951, all items are on a resin-content basis; prior to that time, film and sheeting are on a dry basis (see 3d paragraph of note 3 for this page).

Beginning January 1972, data exclude polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, and other vinyl resins and are not comparable with those for earlier periods. Comparable 1971 annual total is 3,437,328,000 pounds. 9

Source: Institute of Makers of Explosives; from reports of member and nonmember companies for use in the annual reports of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines . Data cover high explosives (including permissibles) produced and sold in the United States, virtually all of which is for industrial purposes. Ammunition and fireworks, and nitroglycerin used as such, are not included. The explosives are used primarily in mining and quarrying and in railway and other construction work. Differences between the annual totals derived from the quarterly reports and the annual totals published by the Bureau of Mines represent data for companies that do not report

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Source: Federal Power Commission. Total production of electric energy is the sum of energy produced in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii beginning January 1964) by electric utilities and other organizations producing electric energy for public use and by industrial establishments.

Data for "electric utilities” are based on reports obtained from all electric supply systems producing for public use, and cover plants of other publicly owned producers. This latter group is composed of Federal projects, cooperatives, power districts, and State projects. Coverage of the electric utilities is substantially 100 percent, comprising at the end of 1973 a total of 3,622 generating plants operated by 1,065 utilities.

The series for "industrial establishments” represents estimated total production by manufacturing (including Government manufacturing) and extractive industries and stationary plants operated for motive power by electric railways and railroads. The figures do not include production where plant capacities are less than 100 kilowatts, where activities are presumably on a temporary basis, and where data are not currently available because of the size or character of the business. The reported monthly data for industrial establishment (as defined above) are extended to represent 100-percent coverage on the basis of reports currently received from approximately 900 generating plants, which account for over 90 percent of the total industrial production of electric energy in the United States. Annual totals were obtained by complete canvass. Data for industrial establishments are available annually beginning 1939 and monthly beginning 1945.

Monthly data for 1947-70 for total production by utilities appear in the appendix to this volume. Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1941-70 for production of electric power by electric utilities, as well as monthly data for 1945-70 for total production by industrial establishments, appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). It should be noted that data for electric power production, shown in the appendix and beginning with the 1947 SUPPLEMENT, differ from data in the 1942 and earlier issues of the SUPPLEMENT chiefly because of the transfer of energy produced by electric railways and railroads from the other producers” category (old basis) to industrial establishments (present series) and the inclusion in the series for industrial establishments of data not previously covered. Monthly figures for 1920-40 for privately and publicly owned utilities are available in the 1942 SUPPLEMENT and on p. 18 of the December 1940 SURVEY. Revised annual totals or monthly averages beginning 1920 and monthly figures for 1936-40 for total production by utilities and production by source are shown on p. 32 of the February 1947 SURVEY; revised figures for the indicated periods may be obtained for “other producers” by subtracting from the revised totals in that issue data for privately owned and municipally owned utilities referred to above. 2

Source: Edison Electric Institute. Data are estimated U.S. totals (including Alaska and Hawaii beginning January 1961) for the entire electric light and power industry contributing to the public supply of electricity. The figures comprise operations of all private, municipal, cooperative, governmental, and industrial enterprises engaged in the production or distribution of electricity for the use of the public. The estimated totals are based on reports from enterprises representing in recent years approximately 97 percent of the industry.

Owing to differences among respondents in the "commercial and industrial” classification, and the continuous reclassification between small and large light and power companies, year-to-year comparisons are more significant when made of total commercial and industrial sales than when made of each separate classification.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1938-70 (except 1957 and 1958 for commercial and industrial), with qualifications mentioned below, appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). It should be noted that the monthly data for 1950-58 do not reflect allocation of rural sales to other classes of service (see note 3 following). Monthly data for 1957 and 1958 for commercial and industrial service have been revised; revisions are available upon request.

coverage of the gas utility industry (includes all regulated distribution and transmission companies and excludes producers) in the United States including Hawaii (beginning 1960) and Alaska (beginning 1961). Because of the diminishing importance of manufactured and mixed gas relative to natural gas, data listed separately for these in the 1971 and earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS are shown in aggregate as total utility gas beginning with the 1973 edition. Sales data, formerly presented in therms, are reported in British thermal units (Btu's). Rough conversions may be made from therms to Btu's by equating one therm to 100,000 Btu's, and from Btu's to cubic feet on the basis of one cubic foot equal to 1,000 Btu's.

The number of customers excludes customers purchasing gas for resale. Likewise, the sales and revenue figures exclude data for gas resold.

The various classes of service are based on the primary purpose for which the gas is used or the type of customer to which a stated rate shall apply. The common classes of service as applied to ultimate consumers and as recommended by the AGA for use by utilities, although not uniformly accepted, are defined below.

“Residential" applies to service supplied for residential purposes under individual contracts in a single-family dwelling or building, or in an individual flat or apartment in a multiple-family dwelling or building or portion thereof occupied as the home, residence, or sleeping place of one or more persons.

"Industrial” applies to service supplied for a process which creates a product or changes raw or unfinished materials into another form or product, or which involves the extraction of a raw material from the earth. “Commercial” relates to service to customers engaged in selling, warehousing, or distributing a commodity in some business activity or in a profession or in some other form of economic or social activity (offices, stores, clubs, hotels, etc.), and to service that does not come directly under one of the other classifications.

"Other” service applies to municipalities or other governmental agencies, sales for street lighting, and interdepartmental sales if made under a definite rate schedule.

Quarterly data for 1969 and 1970 are in the 1973 BUSINESS STATISTICS; those for 1945-68 for customers, sales, and revenue from sales for natural gas and manufactured and mixed gas shown separately, except as noted below, appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). The sales figures for 1945-48 in the 1951 and earlier editions are expressed in cubic feet instead of therms. A therm is a unit of heat content representing 100,000 Btu's and is roughly equivalent to 100 cubic feet of natural gas and 185 cubic feet of manufactured gas (see 1st paragraph of this note for rough conversions). Quarterly data for 1945-70 for total utility gas comparable with annual data shown here are available from the Association.

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Beginning 1950, annual totals for the indicated items reflect the allocation of “rural” sales (shown separately in the 1963 and earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS) to other appropriate classes of service (primarily to residential and large light and power); this adjustment has been made in the monthly figures since January 1959 only.

Beginning January 1961, includes data for Alaska.

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Source: U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Data cover operations of all breweries in the United States, including Hawaii and Alaska (no operations in Alaska in recent years). The figures represent production, taxable withdrawals, and stocks (on brewery premises) of beer, ale, and other liquors produced from fermented malt. Cereal beverages (i.e. beverages containing less than one-half of 1 percent alcohol by volume) are not included.

In addition to the taxable withdrawals published here, the original reports show data for tax-free withdrawals, covering amounts

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withdrawn for export and for vessels and aircraft, consumed on brewery premises, and used for cereal beverages.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1933-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). (March 1950 figure for taxable withdrawals should read 6,002,000 barrels.)

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Source: U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Data represent complete coverage of the industry. Rectified spirits are spirits changed from their original character, such as blended whiskies, liqueurs, and cordials. Total rectified spirits and wines produced comprise whisky, gin, cordials and liqueurs, small quantities of alcohol, rum, brandy, vodka, unclassified spirits, and (prior to July 1960) wines and vermouth. Materials used and production by kinds are available in the original reports.

A standard proof gallon is a wine gallon (231 cubic inches) of 100-proof spirits, the proof being twice the percent of the content, by volume, of ethyl alcohol. In a wine gallon of spirits that is more or less than 100 proof, the number of proof gallons is proportionally greater or smaller than 1 proof gallon.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1934-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

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Source: U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The data represent complete coverage of operations of registered distilleries and fruit distilleries.

In addition to whisky, which is shown separately, the totals for distilled spirits include rum, gin, brandy, vodka, and other distilled spirits (spirits-fruit produced at fruit distilleries, spirits-grain, spirits-cane, etc., produced at registered distilleries). Production figures are net--that is, gross production (original production plus production by redistillation) minus the quantity of distilled spirits used in redistillation.

Stocks are domestic stocks in internal revenue bonded warehouses, based on the original entry gage. Losses are not determined until withdrawal and are therefore not included except for distilled spirits in cases for which losses have already been determined. Beginning July 1959, data include stocks in denaturing facilities as well as in other bonded storage.

Withdrawals represent taxable withdrawals (exclusive of withdrawals of alcohol) from registered and fruit distilleries and internal revenue bonded warehouses. Also published in the reports of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, but not included here, are data for tax-free withdrawals of distilled spirits for the following purposes: Addition to wine; denaturation; for export; transfers to Customs manufacturing bonded warehouses; for vessels and aircraft; for use of the United States; and, beginning July 1953, transfers to Foreign Trade Zones.

For statistics relating to production of ethyl alcohol, see p. 127 of this volume. The taxable withdrawals of ethyl alcohol shown on that page are largely for beverage purposes.

A tax gallon for spirits of 100 proof or over is equivalent to the proof gallon (see note 5 for this page for definition of a standard proof gallon). For spirits of less than 100 proof the tax gallon is equivalent to the wine gallon.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1933-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). 3

Source: Distilled Spirits Institute, Inc. Data are based on sales in all States in which sales of distilled spirits are legal. The number of States permitting such sales has increased from 27 States and the District of Columbia in 1934 to 50 States and the District of Columbia in December 1966. Data are included for Alaska beginning January 1959; for Oklahoma, January 1960; for Hawaii, January 1965 (see note 9 for this page); and for Mississippi, July 1966.

Figures for the license States are based on tax collections and gallonage shipments to wholesalers; those for monopoly States, on actual wholesale and retail sales reported by State liquor control authorities.

A wine gallon is the standard U.S. gallon containing 231 cubic inches.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1938-70 (except as indicated below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Monthly data for 1944 are available on p. S-27 of the November 1948 SURVEY OF CURRENT BUSINESS and those for 1940 (revised since publication in the 1942 volume) are shown on p. 22 of the July 1946 SURVEY. Monthly data for 1934-37 are available upon request.

Annual and monthly data for 1969 exclude Hawaii. Beginning 1970, annual data include Hawaii; however, no monthly data for Hawaii are available.

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Source: U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The data are based on reports of all bonded wine cellars. Stocks are those on wine cellar premises. Prior to January 1955, the figures were reported in taxable units and converted to wine gallons on the basis of 20 taxable units (one-half pint or fraction thereof in bottle or container) per wine gallon; thereafter, the original reports are in wine gallons. Data cover champagne, other effervescent wines, and artificially carbonated wines. In addition to the data on effervescent wines published here, the original reports show data for vermouth and aperitif wines other than vermouth.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1938-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section) 2

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data are imports for consumption. Figures for effervescent wines include champagne and all other sparkling wines. Still wines include vermouth, rice wine (sake), and other still wines. For a general explanation of foreign trade data, as well as information on sampling procedures effective with data for July 1953 and thereafter, see note 1 for p. 109.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1936-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section).

Source: U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The data are based on reports of all bonded wine cellars and include small amounts for Hawaii. Production of still wines represents the amount removed from fermenters, exclusive of distilling materials produced at wineries. Stock figures (representing stocks on wine cellar premises) also exclude data for distilling materials. Data for taxable withdrawals and for stocks include vermouth and aperitif wines other than vermouth beginning January 1953; annual data for 1953 comparable with earlier data are 129,901,000 gallons for withdrawals and 202,632,000 for stocks.

In addition to taxable withdrawals of still wines, as shown here, there are considerable quantities of still wines withdrawn tax free for the following purposes: For use in production of effervescent wines and vinegar; for export; for family use; for use of the United States; and for use as distilling materials.

Distilling materials produced at wineries represent substandard wines produced with excessive water or residue materials, which are used as distilling materials in the production of brandy.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1936-70 (1943-70 for distilled materials produced) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). August 1953

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Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data are imports for consumption. They include spirits, cordials, liqueurs, bitters, ethyl alcohol, and compounds containing spirits. For a general explanation of foreign trade data, as well as information on sampling procedures effective with data for July 1953 and thereafter, see note 1 for p. 109. For definition of a standard proof gallon, see note 5 for this page.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1936-70 (except as noted below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Monthly data for total distilled spirits for 1957, as shown in the 1961 volume, have been revised as follows (proof gallons): June, 2,252,000; November, 3,651,000. (Minor revisions have been made in the 1943 figures for total distilled spirits as

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1945-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Monthly figures for 1929-44 are available upon request. (The prices shown in the 1947 and earlier SUPPLEMENTS are for a different series.)

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Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service. Data are for the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii beginning 1960) and are compiled from factory reports sent directly to the Department; figures for 1974 are estimates. Data for butter include the production of whey butter. Total cheese production includes American-type cheese and foreign and miscellaneous types (Swiss, Brick and Munster, Limburger, Italian, Neufchatel, cream cheese, blue mold, etc.) but excludes cottage, pot, and bakers' cheese and full skim American. The figures shown separately for American cheese include production from whole milk only, which generally is the basis for 99 percent or more of the total American cheese output; data represent largely Cheddar cheese but include other varieties known as colby, washed curd, high- and low-moisture jack, Monterey, and granular.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1938-70 (except as noted below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Total cheese production for January-April 1970 were revised to 166.8; 160.0; 188.0; and 194.7 respectively.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service. Data for production represent the entire industry for unsweetened evaporated milk and for sweetened' condensed milk; the 1974 figures are estimates. The series relate to case goods produced from whole milk (except that a small amount produced from skimmed milk is included in the data prior to 1949).

Data for stocks represent complete coverage and comprise stocks held by manufacturers at all points, those in transit, and those under contract but not delivered.

In the 1971 and earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS, data for production and stocks of condensed and evaporated milk were shown separately. These data are now combined to avoid disclosing operations of individual firms. Data published in earlier editions should be combined for comparability with those shown herein.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1929-70 (except as noted below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). January 1962 production of condensed milk should read 6,100,000 pounds; the February 1930 figure for evaporated milk stocks has been revised to 153,202,000 pounds. The data for evaporated milk production for 1929-30 given in the 1932 SUPPLEMENT include small amounts produced from skimmed milk not included in the present series and, therefore, are not strictly comparable.

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Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service. Data are compiled from reports made by cold-storage establishments and are given on a “net weight” basis. They represent stocks held in public, private, and semiprivate warehouses, and meatpacking plants where food products are generally stored for 30 days or more.

Stocks of butter and cheese (shown on p. 133 include those held by the Government, which represent stocks held by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other agencies. They include also stocks owned by the Armed Services and stored in warehouse space not owned or leased by them; stocks held in space owned or leased and operated by the Armed Services are not included. Through 1949, stocks were reported as of the first of each month; they are included here as data for the end of the preceding month.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1929-70 (except as noted below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Data for 1929-31 for cheese were revised and are shown on p. 19 of the April 1933 SURVEY; total cheese stocks for July 1939, as shown in the 1942 SUPPLEMENT, revised to 118,809,000 pounds.

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Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service. Data are estimated total production of milk on farms, based on daily average milk production per cow (from a sample group of farms) and the estimated number of cows on farms. Production in Alaska and Hawaii is included beginning with data for 1960.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for the following years appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section): 1969-70, 1963-64, 1957-59, 1953-54, and 1949-50. Monthly data for 1965-68, 1960-62, 1955-56, 1951-52, and 1929-48 as published in earlier editions have since been revised and are available upon request.

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Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Data represent the consumption of fluid milk in the manufacture of the principal dairy products. The product currently included in the data are creamery butter, cheese, evaporated and condensed milk (case goods), creamed cottage cheese, dry whole milk, and frozen products ice cream, ice milk, and frozen desserts). Beginning 1958, data are on a revised basis: The creamed cottage cheese and frozen products were added, and account was taken of the monthly variation in production resulting from changes in milkfat content (the earlier series was based on milk of average fat content for the year).

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data 1961-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Revised monthly data for 1958-60 are available upon request. No comparable data prior to 1958 are available.

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Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data for imports of cheese are imports for consumption. All classes of cheese are included. For a general explanation of foreign trade data, as well as information on sampling procedures effective with data for July 1953 and thereafter, see note 1 for p. 109.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1929-70 (except as noted below) appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Data for imports prior to 1934 are general imports. Revisions (thousands of pounds): Cheese imports, 1930-October, 6,325; December, 5,237; exports, December 1946condensed milk, 13,515; evaporated milk, 48,102. 3

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. Data represent the average wholesale price of American cheese, single daisies (21-23 lbs of cheese shaped into a cylindrical form and wrapped in parafin), at Chicago.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service. Data represent the average price received by farmers for fluid milk including premium payments and before hauling charges are deducted for all milk sold during the month to plants and dealers. Data cover (1) milk eligible for the fluid market (i.e., eligible for fluid consumption as milk or cream including any surplus of such milk that may be subsequently diverted to manufacture) and (2) milk of manufacturing grade (i.e., milk of manufacturing grade sold by farmers to creameries, cheese plants, condenseries, and other plants for use in manufacturing dairy products). In computing the monthly and annual average prices (beginning 1948) for the series shown here, weights used to combined prices are estimates of quantities of each grade sold in each State each month.

Annual data prior to 1947 and monthly data for 1955-70 appear in earlier editions of BUSINESS STATISTICS (see reference note, p. 1 of this section). Monthly data for 1929-54 are available upon request.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service. Data for production (except 1974 figures, which are estimates) are as reported by all firms operating dry-milk factories in the United States. Data for stocks cover dry milk held by manufacturers at all

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