Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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These figures nevertheless disguise important trends in participation rates by
gender. ... On the other hand and despite a rising trend in female school
attendance, the proportion of working- age women in the workforce increased
from 23 ...
Thereafter the trend was inexorably downward. The last year that the port
recorded an export surplus was 1928. As the economy pulled out of the 1930s
depression and import demand began to pick up, exports fell to around 60
percent of ...
A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000 Howard W. Dick. when the balance of trade
had fluctuated without any clear trend, from 1983 the balance of trade showed a
sustained improvement. By 1990 Surabaya's trade performance matched that at ...