Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Household servants, of course, continued to use public transport. The
Depression led to a new form of cheap motorized public transport in the form of
small three- and four-wheeled vehicles known generically as autolettes. In 1934,
OJS traffic ...
Instead fixed route public transport was taken over by bemo (becak^ motor), tiny
three-wheeled Daihatsu vans powered by noisy, spluttering, and often smoky two
-stroke engines and fitted in local workshops with a small rear cabin to carry six ...
By then the trend toward motorized transport was irresistible. Growth in middle-
class demand was met by the licensing of several thousand taxis. Rapid growth
in private vehicle ownership meant that public transport was much less a