Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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The improvement in flood control and sanitation was marked, though
maintenance dredging was still required, as were controls against the
reinfiltration of squatters.1" As the Kali Mas works neared completion, a similar
project was begun to ...
Except from bridges, the Kali Mas was hidden behind squatters huts. Public land
was the most obvious place to choose: riverbanks, fire access lanes, railway
yards, building sites, and even Chinese cemeteries, where graves were
Figure 6.7. Squatter clearance near the town hall, ca. 1953. ... Poor squatters in
this area were a stronghold of the Communist Party. There is no evidence that the
Municipality ever seriously attempted to clear squatters from the private estates.