Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Dutch engineering skills were not so well utilized in tackling the sewerage
problem. Houses used pits that were either periodically cleaned out or simply
discharged into open drains and flushed into the river. As in rural villages,
Meanwhile, all around the city, squatters had begun to occupy niches where they
were little bothered by a city administration preoccupied with more immediate
problems. The flood of people eventually overwhelmed the modest efforts being ...
The most difficult problem was the clearance of squatters who lined the banks of
the Kali Mas from Wonokromo to below Jem- batan Merah. In 1975 it was
estimated that around twenty thousand families, or a hundred thousand people,