Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Although the ethnic basis of discrimination was broken down , education ,
occupation , and income have remained the ... Indeed , the Westernized
Indonesian elite of today is probably just as middle class as the Dutch elite of the
late - colonial ...
Once the last vestiges of colonial power had been swept away along with the
entire European middle class there was no longer a foreign scapegoat for the
persistence of inequality . From the historical distance of the 1990s , the heretical
The actual situation is that some are more equal than others , that the middle
class , especially that non - Chinese part of it in living in Jakarta , expects political
rights , though not necessarily to be shared with the people . The consumerist ...