Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Small-scale factory production of hand-rolled clove-flavored cigarettes (kretek)
dates back to around 1920, when Chinese immigrant Liem Seng Tee as Handel
Maats- chappij Sampoerna (Sampoerna Trading Company) first distributed his ...
Labor-intensive industry: female kretek rollers, PT Gelora, 1987. Photo by author.
THE DEPRESSION Renewed industrial growth was cut short by the world
depression of the 1930s. Its onset was already apparent by the end of 1929 and
In 1935 the Surabaya firm Sampoerna discovered a way to produce machine-
made kretek without using paper subject to the 30 percent excise. With this price
advantage Sampoerna's output soared from 30 million cigarettes in 1933 to 280 ...