Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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The drydock company reduced its workforce by more than two - thirds , from.
Figure 5 . 3 . Labor - intensive industry : female kretek rollers , PT Gelora , 1987 .
Photo by author . Figure 5 . 4 . Workers leaving the Braat engineering. Industry
Entry of Faroka in 1932 with a new plant at Malang had led the established
monopolist , British - American Tobacco ( BAT ) , to slash prices , which during
the Depression caused great hardship for kretek producers in East Java . In 1935
By the measure of value added , the only other substantial industrial cluster is the
kretek industry , represented by the firm Gudang Garam in Kediri , to the west (
Young 1993 ) . " 8 TABLE 5 . 9 Employment by size of establishment , 310 ...