Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Kampung households, living in close proximity along the narrow pathways (gang
), rely on their neighbors for security and are careful not to antagonize them by
conspicuous consumption. Suburban households, by contrast, living in detached
take part in kampung life and those who isolate themselves from their neighbors
both physically and socially, but this does not necessarily correlate with
household expenditure, occupation, and education. Observation confirms that
The colonial state, usually in the form of the Municipality, did increasingly
intervene in kampung life but only on the margin. Except for those on land owned
by the Municipality, kam- pungs were not directly subject to local government.