Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Kampungs initially favored by the W. R. Supratman Project therefore needed
further investment to bring them to the standard of other Urban III and Urban V
kampungs. Not all this investment, however, depended on foreign involvement.
New foreign investments were highly diverse: food processing (including the
Nestle milk factory and a South Korean ... In 1986 just thirty-seven L and M
establishments, a mere 3 percent of the total, had foreign-investment status,
although their ...
During the 1990s these heavy-industrial projects underpinned a surge in foreign
investment (table 5.1 1). The underlying factor, however, was the success of
Indonesia's non-oil export drive combined with liberalization of foreign-