Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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In Surabaya by the end of 1931, out of 590 hectares of kampungs on government
land (excluding about 100 hectares on private estates), some 200 hectares had
been improved — 135 hectares only partially — for an outlay of Fl 513,000.
Except for Darmo Grande, housing projects had been dormitory suburbs of no
more than a few hundred hectares. Now emerged competing new-town
developments of more than a thousand hectares, as well as many smaller
Dharmala Group's Graha Famili (originally Grande Family) Estate (280 hectares),
for example, advertised in 1995 "the ultimate in comfortable family lifestyle,"
encompassing 1,830 houses, 14 condominium towers (1,120 units), a shopping