Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Indonesian forces were then gradually driven southward through Tun- jungan
and Bubutan. The local people used to the full their knowledge of the buildings
and narrow lanes but could not withstand the relentless pressure from British-
Europeans were disproportionately represented in the professions, public service
, and the armed forces. Their main occupation, however, was trade (26 percent).
This reflected not only Surabaya's importance as an international port but also ...
The police force grew so rapidly that by 1919 it numbered in all some 1,300,
which after budgetary cuts during the ... That centralization carried over to post-
Independence Indonesia, in which police were until 1999 part of the armed