Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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5.6 Manufacturing employment, Greater Surabaya, 1976, 1996 306 5.7
Establishments and employment by sector, Rungkut Industrial Estate, February
1985 307 5.8 Employment and value added by sector, Greater Surabaya and
The above rough figures suggest fairly rapid growth in industrial employment
between 1900 and 1914 but they are too incomplete to reveal any trend. Apart
from the problem of distinguishing the city of Surabaya from the surrounding ...
... factory, which lay closest to the city, just south of Wonokromo, complained in
the 1920 annual report of the lack of labor for planting, harvesting, and transport
of cane because of the availability of higher- paying employment in Surabaya.