Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Outwardly Surabaya remained calm, waiting, though thousands of Indonesians
continued to pour out of the city and the looting of factories, defense posts, and
offices continued almost unchecked (Frederick 1989, 87-88). On Sunday morning
Household servants, of course, continued to use public transport. The
Depression led to a new form of cheap motorized public transport in the form of
small three- and four-wheeled vehicles known generically as autolettes. In 1934,
OJS traffic ...
While the multiplier effects of Sumatra's abundant exports, including oil, tin, and
rubber, continued to benefit Jakarta — and Singapore — East Java continued to
lose ground in the west. Between 1957 and 1962, when the statistical series was