Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Few households still had to use rivers and canals, whose banks had been
cleared of squatters (chap. 6). Kampung improvement programs had also TABLE
3.23 Access to own household amenities by expenditure group, urban Surabaya,
branch ran southward through Sidoarjo, toward Pasuruan and Malang; the other
ran southwest, toward Mojokerto, along both banks of the Brantas River — some
of these plants later caused bad water pollution (chap. 4). These ribbons were ...
... per capita calorie supply recovered during the 1930s, almost back to the peak
of 1920. The distributional impact is still problematic. See also Boomgaard (2000)
. 14. Gill 1957 is a good overview of the strategic situation; Vlekke 1945 (chap.