Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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... and the tense election campaign all added to a sense of foreboding. Sensing a
mood for change, after the elections student groups and a few brave political
leaders called upon Soeharto not to seek reappointment for a seventh term.
On the nineteenth an estimated twenty thousand students from twenty-two
universities held a rally at the Stiesia football stadium and next day joined with
students in massive pro-Reformasi rallies, six East Java generals called for
The biggest student demonstrations, the worst rioting, the byzantine negotiations,
and Soeharto's eventual resignation were all played out there and relayed to the
rest of the country. Students, the military, civil leaders, and ordinary people in ...