Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Looting (rampo\) and arson was widespread, attributed to Madurese gangs and
republican infiltration (ARA, MK 2.10.29, 409: memo, 30/1/46). For Europeans,
Surabaya had become a tiny enclave besieged by an alien hinterland. As in the ...
On the edge of the mainland of Java and adjacent to the off-lying island of
Madura, the city has always been an interface between two distinct indigenous
cultures, the Javanese and Madurese, each having its own very different
In the nineteenth century Bojonegoro and Lamongan already supplied much of
the seasonal workforce in the sugar factories of the Lower Brantas, just as
Madurese crossed to the Oosthoek to work in the sugar, tobacco, and coffee
estates (KV ...