Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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More ominously, people began to disappear. All Dutch military personnel had
been interned on capture. On 18 March the Japanese had sought from Parindra
leaders a report of Indonesian intellectuals who could take over from Dutch
Thus within a few years the Dutch community in Surabaya had already shrunk to
a quarter of its colonial size. Most of those who remained worked in the private
sector. In 1953 the resident Dutch commissioner had carried out a survey of
private Dutch firms, should ultimately be in the public domain. Private capital,
including foreign investment, would be restricted to "nonessential" industries.
During the 1950s economic policy was a tug-of-war between radical nationalists,