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very statement,” indeed of the rule set out in Article 13, supra, assumes the matters of fact commented upon to be somehow or other ascertained. It does not mean that a man may invent facts, and comment on the facts so invented in what would be a fair and bonâ fide manner on the supposition that the facts were true. . . . If the facts as a comment upon which the publication is sought to be excused do not exist, the foundation of the plea fails” (a). A newspaper may not set out evidence which might have been, but was not in fact given, and suggest as an inference therefrom that the prisoner though acquitted was really guilty (6). It may comment on evidence actually given (c), but may not charge a witness with having committed perjury (d). The defendant will not, however, be liable for trivial mistakes made accidentally, for “it is not to be expected that a public journalist will always be infallible" (e).

NOTE 3.-“MATTER OF PUBLIC INTEREST.” Under this description come :

(1) ALL STATE MATTERS; EVERYTHING WHICH

CON

n. ;

Lewis v.

(a) Per cur. in Lefroy v. Burnside (1879), 4 L. R. Ir. at p. 565. See also per cur. in Davis and Sons y. Shepstone (1886), 11 App. Cas. at p. 190.

(6) Rex v. White and another (1808), 1 Camp. 359, Walter (1821), 4 B. & Ald. 605; Helsham v. Blackwood and another (1851), 20 L. J. C. P. 187; 11 C. B. 111; 15 Jur. 861 ; Hibbins v. Lee (1864), 11 L. T. 541 ; 4 F. & F. 243; Woodgate v. Ridout (1865), 4 F. & F. 202; Risk Allah Bey v. Whitehurst and others (1868), 18 L. T. N. S. 615; Dickeson v. Hilliard and another (1874), L. R. 9 Ex. 79; 43 L. J. Ex. 37; 30 L. T. 196; 22 W. R. 372.

(c) Hedley v. Barlow (1865), 4 F. & F. 224.

(d) Roberts v. Brown (1834), 10 Bing. 519; 6 C. & P. 757 ; 4 M. & Scott, 407; Littler v. Thomson (1839), 2 Beav. 129 ; Felkin v. Herbert (1863-64), 33 L. J. Ch. 294; 9 L. T. 635; 10 Jur. N. S. 62; 12 W. R. 241, 332.

(e) Per Cockburn, C. J., in Woodgate v. Ridout (1865), 4 F. & F. 217. See also cases on p. 16, supra.

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CERNS GOVERNMENT, EITHER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT, OR ANY COMMITTEE THEREOF.—Evidence given before a parliamentary committee (f), or a royal commission (g); the prevalence of corrupt practices at a parliamentary election (h); government appointments (i); a petition to

; parliament (k), and a debate in the House thereon (1); a report by the Board of Admiralty (m).

(2) THE PUBLIC CONDUCT OF EVERY ONE WHO TAKES PART IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS (n).–Of statesmen and politicians (6); public agitators (p); clergymen (9); judges and magistrates (r); barristers (s) ; candidates for parliament (t), and their supporters in public (u); vestrymen and way

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(f) Hedley v. Barlow (1865), 4 F. & F. 224.

(9) Mulkern v. Ward (1872), L. R. 13 Eq. 622; 41 L. J. Ch. 464; 26 L. T. 831.

(h) Wilson v. Reed and others (1860), 2 F. & F. 149.

(i) Turnbull v. Bird (1861), 2 F. & F. 508 ; Seymour v. Butterworth (1862), 3 F. & F. 372.

(k) Dunne v. Anderson (1825), 3 Bing. 88; 1 Moore, 407; R. & M. 287; Wason v. Walter (1870), L. R. 4 Q. B. 73; 38 L. J. Q. B. 34.

(1) Wason v. Walter, supra.

(m) Henwood v. Harrison (1872), L. R. 7 C. P. 606; 41 L. J. C. P. 206; 26 L. T. 938; 20 W. R. 1000. See the observations of Bowen, L. J., on this case in 20 Q. B. D. 282–283.

(n) Per Bramwell, B., in Kelly V. Sherlock (1866), L. R. 1 Q. B. at p. 689; 35 L. J. Q. B. 209; 12 Jur. N. S. 937.

(0) Parmiter v. Coupland and another (1840), 9 L. J. Ex. 202; 6 M. & W. 105; 4 Jur. 701.

(P) Odger v. Mortimer (1873), 28 L. T. 472.

(9) Kelly v. Tinling (1865), L. R. 1 Q. B. 699 ; 35 L. J. Q. B. 940.

(r) Hibbins v. Lee (1864), 11 L. T. 541; 4 F. & F. 243. (s) Seymour v. Butterworth (1862), 3 F. & F. 372.

(t) Duncombe v. Daniell (1836), 8 C. & P. 222; 2 Jur. 32; 1 W. W. & H, 101.

(u) Davis v. Duncan (1874), L. R. 9 C. P. 396; 43 L. J. C. P. 143; 30 L. T. 464; 38 J. P. 728; 22 W. R. 575.

wardens (w); petitioners to parliament (y); BUT NOT THE PRIVATE CONDUCT OF SUCH PERSONS SAVE IN SO FAR AS IT AFFECTS THEIR PUBLIC RELATIONS (>).

(3) LEGAL (a) AND ECCLESIASTICAL MATTERS.—The mode of conducting church services (1); but not the affairs of a private society established by the incumbent (c).

(4) THE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND LOCAL AFFAIRS.— The official acts of a waywarden (d); “the management of the poor and the administration of the poor law(e); the report of an inspector of charities

} under the Charitable Trusts Acts (f); but not the acts of the trustee of a private corporation (9).

(5) PLACES OF PUBLIC AMUSEMENT OR ENTERTAINMENT. A dramatic ball (h), and a flower show (1).

(6) LITERATURE.— The contents of any newspaper (k), or

(c) Harle v. Catherall (1866), 14 L. T. 801. (y) Wason v. Walter, supra.

(2) Wilson v. Reed, Seymour V. Butterworth, supra; Harwood v. Sir J. Astley (1804), 1 B. & P. N. R. 47; Wisdom v. Brown (1885), 1 Times L. R. 412; Pankhurst v. Hamilton (1887), 3 Times L. R. 500.

(a) Per Cockburn, C. J., in Cox v. Feeney (1863), 4 F. & F. 13; and in Pursell v. Sowler (1877), 2 C. P. D. 218 (C. A.).

(6) Kelly v. Tinling (1865), L. R. 1 Q. B. 699; 35 L. J. Q. B. 231; 13 L. T. 255; 29 J. P. 725; 30 J. P. 791, 805; 12 Jur. N. S. 940; 14 W. R. 51.

(c) Gathercole v. Miall (1846), 1ő L. J. Ex. 179; 10 J. P. 582; 10 Jur. 337; 15 M. & W. 319; Walker v. Brogden (1865), 12 L. T. 495; 19 C. B. N. S. 65; 11 Jur. N. S. 671 ; 13 W. R. 809; Booth and others v. Briscoe (1877), 2 Q. B. D. 496 (C. A.); 25 W. R. 838.

(d) Harle v. Catherall and others (1866), 14 L. T. 801.

(e) Per Cockburn, C. J., in Pursell v. Sowler (1877), 2 C. P. D. 215 (C. A.); 46 L. J. C. P. 308; 36 L. T. 416; 41 J. P. 789; 23 W. R. 362.

(f) Cox v. Feeney (1863), 4 F. & F. 13.
(9) Wilson y. Fitch (1871), (Am.) 41 Cal. 363.
(h) Dibdin v. Swan and Bostock (1793), 1 Esp. 28.
(i) Green v. Chapman (1837), 4 Bing. N. C. 92; 5 Scott, 340.

(k) Heriot v. Stuart (1796), 1 Esp. 437; Stuart v. Lovell (1817), 2 Stark. 93; Campbell y. Spottiswoode, supra.

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book (1), or its author as such (m); but not the private character of an author (n), or journalist (o).

(7) Art.-Painting (P), and architecture (9).

(8) ANYTHING WHICH INVITES PUBLIC ATTENTION OR CRITICISM (r).— The contents of a pamphlet (s), advertisement(t), or handbill issued to the public (u); or a stageplay (v).

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ARTICLE 14.Privilege. In certain cases, even though the matter complained of is libellous, in the interests of public policy, no liability attaches to the publication thereof—in other words, the communication is privileged.

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bell v.

(1) Macleod v. Wakeley (1828), 3 C. & P. 311; Strauss v. Francis (1866), 15 L. T. 674; 4 F. & F. 939, 1107.

(m) Carr v. Hood (1808), 1 Camp. 355, n. (n) Fraser v. Berkeley (1836), 7 C. & P. 621. (0) Strauss v. Francis, Heriot v. Stuart, Stuart v. Lovell, Camp

Spottiswoode, supra; Russell and another v. Webster (1874), 23 W. R. 59.

(P) Thompson v. Shackell (1828), 1 M. & M. 187; Whistler v. Ruskin, Times, Nov. 26th and 27th, 1878.

(9) Soane v. Knight (1827), Moo. & Mal. 74.

(n) Morrison v. Belcher (1863), 3 F. & F. 614; Duplany v. Davis (1887), 3 Times L. R. 184.

(8) Hibbs v. Wilkinson (1859), 1 F. & F. 608; Koenig v. Ritchie (1862), 3 F. & F. 413; Odger v. Mortimer (1871), 28 L. T. 472.

(t) Morrison and another v. Harmer and another (1837), 3 Bing. N. C. 759; 3 Hodges, 108; 4 Scott, 524; Hunter v. Sharpe (1866), 15 L. T. 421; 4 F. & F. 983; 30 J. P. 149.

(u) Eastwood v. Holmes (1858), 1 F. & F. 347; Paris v. Levy (1860), 30 L. J. C. P. 11; 3 L. T. 324; 9 C. B. N. S. 342; 2 F. & F. 71; 7 Jur. N. S. 289; 9 W. R. 71; Jenner and another v. ABeckett (1871), L. R. 7 Q. B. 11; 41 L. J. Q. B. 14; 25 L. T. 464; 36 J. P. 38; 20 W. R. 181.

(v) Merivale v. Carson (1887), 20 Q. B. D. 275 (C. A.),

On privileged occasions there is either

(1.) Absolute privilege, where no action lies, however untrue or malicious (2) the statement may have been. This exists in the following cases(y): (a) Reports, &c., published by order of parlia

ment (Article 15); (b) Reports in a newspaper (2) of proceedings in

a Court of justice if published contemporaneously with such proceedings (Article 16,

Note 1); (2.) Qualified privilege, where the primâ facie protection is rebutted by proof of actual malice(x). This exists in the following cases (y):

(a) Reports of proceedings in parliament (Ar

ticle 17);

(b) Reports in certain journals of proceedings

in a Court of justice, and reports in a newspaper (2) of such proceedings if not published contemporaneously with such

proceedings (Article 16, Notes 1 and 3); (c) Reports of proceedings of public meetings

(Article 18); (d) Reports of vestry meetings, &c. (Article (e) Notices and reports published at request of

government office or authorities (Article

19);

20).

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(2) The terms “malicious” and “malice” are here and throughout used in the ordinary sense of personal spite or ill-feeling.

(y) This list only purports to deal with privilege so far as the law of libel in its relation to the

press

is concerned. (2) As to the meaning of "newspaper," see infra, p. 28.

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