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limitation, and which must ne- several acts of congress impocessarily terminate in the loss of sing duties on imports, whether liberty itself.”

by ordinances of conventions, or As these resolutions were in- legislative enactments, are not tended to express the views of warranted by the constitution, the nullifiers; with the intention and are dangerous to the political of setting forth those of the ad- institutions of the country.ministration, on the following day, These latter resolutions were Mr. Grundy offered the follow- not deemed by a portion of the ing resolutions, as substitutes for senate, fully to set forth the chaMr. Calhoun's.

racter of the government, and Resolved, 1. That, by the con- with the view of having placed stitution of the United States, cer- upon record his opinions upon tain powers are delegated to the that point, Mr. Clayton, on the general government, and those 25th, proposed a resolution setnot delegated nor prohibited to ting them forth. the states, are reserved to the Mr. Clayton remarked, that the states respectively, or to the amendments of Mr. Grundy, people.

while they declare the several “2. That one of the powers ex- acts of congress laying duties on pressly granted by the constitu- imports to be constitutional, and tion to the general government, deny the power of a single state and prohibited to the states, is to annul them, or any other conthat of laying duties on imports. stitutional law, tacitly yield the

“ 3. That the power to lay im- whole doctrine of nullification, posts, is, by the constitution, by the implied admission that wholly transferred from the state any unconstitutional law may be authorities to the general go. judged of by the state in the last vernment, without any reserva- resort, and annulled by the same tion of power or right on the part authority. He dissented from of the states.

this doctrine—and if he had “4. That the tarifflaws of 1828 rightly considered the proposed and 1832, are exercises of the amendments, it became his duty constitutional powers possessed to place on record his own sentiby the congress of the United ments, and that of the state he States, whatever various opin- in part represented, on this most ions may exist as to their policy important subject, affirming the and justice.

just powers of this government, 5. That an attempt on the and repudiating the whole docpart of a state to annul an act of trine contended for and asserted congress passed upon any sub- in the resolutions of the gentleject exclusively confided by the men from South Carolina. Difconstitution to congress, is an fering on this subject, as he forencroachment on the rights of merly had in debate here, from the general government. the gentlemen from Tennessee,

“6. That attempts to obstruct he knew no middle ground on or prevent the execution of the which they could meet, no point

of concession to which he should under the constitution, the laws be willing to go, short of a full of the United States, and treaties recognition of the true principles made under their authority; that of the constitution, as asserted in resistance to the laws founded the resolution he was about to on the inherent and inalienable offer. He then submitted the right of all men to resist oppresfollowing resolution :

sion, is in its nature revolution" Resolved, That the power to ary, and extra-constitutional amend the several acts of con- and that, entertaining these gress imposing duties on im- views, the senate of the United ports, or any other law of the States, while willing to concede United States, when assumed by every thing to any honest differa single state, is “incompatible ence of opinion which can be with the existence of the Union, yielded consistently with the contradicted expressly by the honour and interest of the nation, letter of the constitution, unau- will not fail in the faithful disthorized by its spirit, inconsis- charge of its most solemn duty tent with every principle on to support the executive in the which it was founded, and de- just administration of the gostructive of the great object for vernment, and clothe it with

all which it was formed; that the constitutional power necessary people of these United States to the faithful execution of the are, for the purposes enumerated laws and the preservation of the in their constitution, one people Union.” and a single nation, having de- Mr. C. then gave notice that, legated full power to their com- whenever the gentleman from mon agents to preserve and de- Tennessee should move his resofend their national interests for lution, by way of amendment, the purpose of attaining the great the above would be moved as a end of all government, the safety substitute for a part of the proand happiness of the governed; posed amendment. that while the constitution does The whole subject was now provide for the interest and before congress, and the state safety of all the states, it does legislatures being generally in not secure all the rights of inde- session, passed resolutions expendent sovereignty to any; pressing their opinions as to the that the allegiance of the people course which that body ought to is rightfully due as it has been adopt. freely given to the general go- In those of Massachusetts, vernment, to the extent of all Connecticut, New York, Delathe sovereign power expressly ware, Missouri, Tennessee, Inceded to that government by the diana, the doctrines of nullificaconstitution ; that the supreme tion were entirely disclaimed, court of the United States is the as destructive to the constitution. proper and only tribunal in the Those of North Carolina and last resort for the decision of all Alabama were no less explicit cases in law and equity, arising in condemning nullification, but they also expressed an opinion, from all acts calculated to disturb that the tariff was unconstitu- the tranquillity of the country" tional and inexpedient.

After further resolving that The state of Georgia, also, they adhere to the principles of reprobated the doctrine of nul- the resolutions of 1998, but that lification as unconstitutional, by they do not consider them as a vote of 102 to 51, but it de- sanctioning the proceedings of nounced the tariff in decided South Carolina, or the principles terms, and proposed a conven- of the president's proclamation ; tion of the states of Virginia, N. they proceeded to appoint BenCarolina, S. Carolina, Georgia, jamin W. Leigh, as a commisAlabama, Tennessee, and Mis- sioner on the part of the state, to sissippi, to devise measures to proceed to South Carolina, to obtain relief from that system. communicate the resolutions of

The legislature of Virginia Virginia, and to express their assumed a still more extraordi- good will to the people of that nary ground. The subject was state, and their anxious solicithere referred to a committee on tude for an accommodation of the federal relations, where a the difficulties between them and general discussion was had on the general government. The the powers of the government, state of New Hampshire extoo tedious to be recapitulated, pressed no opinion as to the docand finally, resolutions were trines of South Carolina, but the passed, earnestly requesting of S. legislature passed resolutions in Carolina not to proceed further favour of reducing the tariff to under the ordinance of congress, the revenue standard. to reduce the import duties to a On the other hand, the legislarevenue standard, and delaring tures of Massachusetts, Vermont, that the people of Virginia ex- R. Island, N. Jersey, and Pennpect that the general govern- sylvania, declared themselves to ment and the government of S. be opposed to any modification Carolina will carefully abstain of the tariff.


Tariff:—Proceedings in House.-In South Carolina.-Enforcing

Bill.Proceedings in Senate.-Mr. Wilkins' Speech.-- Amendments.Mr. Clay proposes Compromise.--Discussion on do.Discussion on Enforcing Bill.—Mr. Calhoun's Speech.-Mr. Webster's Reply.--Mr. Forsyth's Amendments.-- Mr. Bibb's do.-Bill passes Senate.

WHILE the states were thus South Carolina, in the mean time, sustaining their respective views did not relax in their exertions and interests, congress was slow- to increase the military force of ly proceeding in the discussion the state.

Munitions were proof the questions belonging to the vided, depots formed, and the subject.

militia in the nullifying districts In the house, the tariff bill were called upon to volunteer in was subjected to an ordeal, that her defence. threatened to prove fatal to its On the other hand, the union passage through that body. The party were equally determined discussion upon its general prin- not to submit to the nullifying ciples, which ocupied the house ordinance and laws, and prepafor two weeks after its introduce red themselves with equal firmtion, was resumed from time ness and zeal to sustain the fedeto time during the examination ral authorities. A spark was of its details for the purpose sufficient to kindle the flame of of amendment; and but little civil war, but fortunately no acprospect appeared of bringing cident occurred to bring about a about any satisfactory termi- collision. The revenue laws, nation of this long disputed under the protection of the forces question. Amendment after of the federal government, were amendment was

introduced, carried into effect without any each producing debate, and the opposition by violence. session seemed drawing to a No attempt was made to enclose, without any proposition force the laws under the ordibeing made, that was calculated nance, and on the 31st of Januto unite the votes of a majority ary, at a meeting of the leading of the house. The authorities of nullifiers at Charleston, afte

reiterating their determination to revenue laws? Is the due admi. maintain their principles, and nistration of those laws threatena expressing their satisfaction ated with impediments ? and is the proposition to modify the this bill suited to such an emertariff, it was resolved that during gency? He proposed to conthe session of congress, all col- sider those points. lision be avoided, between the It is time, continued Mr. W., state and federal authorities, in that the principles on which the the hope that the controversy Union depends, were discussed. might be satisfactorily adjusted. It is time that congress express

During these proceedings in ed an opinion upon them. It is South Carolina, the enforcing time that the people should bring bill, or the bill further providing their judgment to bear on this for the collection of duties, was subject, and settle it for ever. pressed forward to a vote. The I'he bill is of great importdiscussion on this bill was com- ance, not on account of its parmenced on the 28th of January, ticular provisions, but of their by Mr. Wilkins, (chairman of application to a rapidly approachthe judiciary committee.) Mr. ing crisis, which they were inWilkins said that the bill was tended to meet. That crisis founded upon a message from was in the control of this body, the president, communicated on not of any branch of the governthe 16th inst., and proposed to ment. He would now present sustain the constitutionality of to the senate a view of the posithe doctrines laid down in that tion in which South Carolina had paper. In the outset of the dis- placed herself, in order to justify cussion he admitted that the bill the committee in reporting the pointed to an afllicting state of bill under consideration. things existing in a southern state The excitement raised in the of the Union. So far from being state, gave to the party a majoriinvidious, however, the bill was ty in the legislature of the state, made general and sweeping, in and a convention was called, its terms and application, for the under the provision of the state

that this course was constitution, authorizing its thought to be more delicate in amendment. The convention regard to the state concerned. met, and passed what is called The provisions of the bill were the ordinance, establishing new made general, for the purpose of and fundamental principles. . enforcing every where the col. Without repeating it, he would lection laws of the Union. call the attention of the senate to

The bill, Mr. W. said, pre- some few of its provisions. It sents three very important and overthrew the whole revenue momentous considerations: Is system. It was not limited to

in the circum- the acts of 1828 or 1832, but stances of the country calling for ended with a solemn declaration legislation on the subject of the that, in that state, no taxes should


there any

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