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Her claim to the disputed ter- both countries, the same privi ritory was thus practically en- leges granted to the merchants forced, and was acquiring valid- of other nations. ity from the acquiescence of the Provision was also made to United States.
secure to the citizens of both Similar inattention, on the countries the power of disposing part of the American govern- of their personal estate, within ment, was strengthening her the jurisdiction of either, by will claim to the exclusive navigation or otherwise. It will be found of the lower part of the St. Law- in the Appendix. rence.
A similar treaty was made The relations of business be- with Belgium, but the ratificatween the American producers tions were not exchanged. and the Canadian merchants Some claims of American began to be established, and in- merchants against Portugal for terests in opposition to a free illegal captures, were prosecuted navigation were growing up, to a successful result, and an without attention
earnest and persevering effort strance on our part.
was made by the administration In the mean time, the claim of to procure satisfaction from England was acquiring force, Spain, for illegal detentions and and it was easy to foresee that a captures of American property, longer perseverance in this po- subsequent to the treaty of 1819, licy, would place in her hands the and acknowledgment of control of all internal commerce their justice was finally extorted between the Gulf of St. Law- from that government. rence and those extensive coun- No alterations worthy of notries bordering on the great tice occurred in the relations American lakes.
between this country and the
neighbouring powers on this conThe relations of the United tinent. States with other European A treaty of commerce was powers, continued upon their concluded with Chili, and the accustomed footing.
time limited in the treaty for With Russia a treaty of com- designating the boundary be
was concluded in the tween the United States and month of December, 1832, upon Mexico, was suffered to expire the principles of reciprocity, and through the neglect of Mexico, securing to the merchants of without adjusting that question.
South Carolina Legislature meet.-Nullifying Acts.—Union
Convention.-Crisis.-Course of Federal Government.-Military Preparations.-Meeting of Congress.-Proclamation of President. Of Gov. Hayne.- Resignation of Vice President. New Tariff Reported in House.-President's Message, asking new Powers.--Mr. Calhoun's Speech.-Enforcing Bill Reported. --Mr. Calhoun's Resolutions as to Federal Powers.- Mr. Grundy's.—Mr. Clayton's.-Resolutions of State Legislatures.
The headlong course of South scized or detained under the U. Carolina, during the year 1832, States revenue laws, and to dehad placed the state government liver them to the owner and in such a hostile attitude towards consignee,-and in case of a rethe federal government, that a fusal to deliver them, or of their general expectation prevailed, removal, to seize double the that a violent collision would amount of the personal estate of take place; and there was too the offender. much reason to apprehend a dis- It also provided, that any persolution of the Union,--followed son arrested under any judgment by civil war.
in the United States courts for The convention which met in duties, might bring an action for that state on the 19th of Novem- damages; that any sale of real ber, having passed the ordinance estate under such judgment, declaring the revenue laws of should be held void that any the Union void, adjourned-and person paying duties might enjoined the legislature to carry recover them back with interest; its decrees into effect. That and for the punishment of all body met directly after its ad- persons disobeying or resisting journment, and with a prompti- officers in the execution of the tude and spirit which would act. As it was not supposed that have been beyond praise in the federal government would a better cause, passed the laws quietly acquiesce in the destrucnecessary for that purpose. tion of its revenue system ;
The first act authorized the the next act authorized the sheriff to replevy any goods governor to resist the federal government in any attempt to and other warlike munitions, to enforce the revenue laws, with be imported from the northern the whole force of the state ; and states, for the more effectual nulfurther provided for organizing lification of the tariff. the militia, and the purchase of On the other hand, the union munitions and ordnance. An party in South Carolina, showed act was also passed requiring all equal determination to sustain civil and military officers in the the laws of the Union. state to take an oath to execute A convention of the union and enforce the ordinance, and party, was held at Columbia, in the laws passed in obedience December, where resolutions thereto,—and the state was thus were passed protesting against placed in an attitude of opposi- the ordinance as unconstitutional tion to the federal government; and oppressive-disfranchising and striving to destroy the union. nearly one half of the citizens of
The gravity of history is some- the state, for a difference of opinwhat disturbed, when we con- ion-violating the right of trial template the small means that by jury,—subverting the indewere relied upon to accomplish pendence of the judiciary,—and the overthrow of a government, virtually destroying the Union. based upon the general interest, The convention, in which were and sustained by the affections assembled many of the most disof a nation consisting of thirteen tinguished sons of South Carolimillions.
na, then declared, that while they Still, enough of strength was disclaimedall intention of lawless to be found on the side of the or insurrectionary violence, they nullifying party, to render it the were determined to protect their duty of the federal government rights, by all legal and constituto make timely preparations to tional means, and, " that in doing enforce the laws which had been so, they would continue to maindeclared void.
tain their character of peaceable The constitutional authorities of citizens, unless compelled to a state, were arrayed in oppo- throw it aside by intolerable opsition to the federal authorities; pression." the legislature had enacted laws This resolution not to submit to arm and discipline the militia, to the measures of the dominant and to impose oaths which com- party, was still more plainly expelled those taking them to act in pressed in the primary assemviolation of their allegiance to the blies. United States.
In Charleston, where they The governor had manifested were as numerous, and in some his earnest disposition to carry of the mountainous districts, the designs of the legislature into where they were more numerous effect ;—and while at home, he than their opponents, meetings took steps to put the military were held, in which it was reforce of the state in an efficient solved to sustain the federal gocondition; he caused cannons vernment in its efforts to enforce
the revenue laws, and also to in supporting those doctrines resist, by force if necessary, could not be foreseen. every attempt to carry into ef- There was a strong bond of fect the laws passed by the state sympathy between all the southlegislature, imposing unconstitu- ern states : and although North tional oaths upon all civil and Carolina and Alabama united in military officers.
condemning nullification; there An issue was now formed, was too much reason to apprewhich threatened an immediate hend that any collision growing resort to arms. A crisis had ar- out of an attempt to enforce the rived, which could not be safely tariff laws, would array a large neglected.
portion of the population of the The leading nullifiers were in southern states on the side of possession of the state govern- South Carolina. The progress of ment, and acted under the impo- events in that state, was consesing sanction of a state law, quently watched with much which, although unconstitutional, anxiety by the rest of the Union. still carried a sort of authority With a strong conviction of the with it. By their activity and necessity of maintaining the sutalents, they had excited great premacy of the federal governenthusiasm among their follow- ment, there was joined a maniers, and were thus enabled to fest reluctance to resort to force execute their measures with the for that purpose. cordial co-operation of a party, The Union was, in the general formidable both for its numbers opinion, too dear to be endangerand determination.
ed, even by an adherence to a There was also no small de- policy, which, although expegree of danger that should force dient, was not necessary. Still
, be resorted to, the nullifiers those who, in defiance of the dewould find supporters in some nunciations and violence of the of the adjacent states.
dominant party in South CaroThe doctrines asserted by the lina, stood up for the constitunullifiers were not materially tion and the laws, could not be different from those of the cele- left without support in their brated resolutions prepared by hazardous position. Mr. Jefferson in 1798-9, for the With the view of affording Kentucky legislature: they had them the requisite aid, as well been directly asserted by the as to put down any open attempt legislature of Virginia in "1829, to resist the execution of the and the state of Georgia had revenue laws, a competent force practically enforced them in re- was assembled at Charleston, lation to the Cherokee treaties, that being the port where the and the laws of congress passed commerce of the state is chiefly to carry those treaties into effect. carried on.
How the citizens of those 1 he commander-in-chief of the states would be disposed to act military eastern department
(General Scott) was directed to gress assembled, and the nullirepair to that place, to aid the fiers evinced a willingness to civil officers of the government suspend their action against the in the execution of the laws; and tariff, until the termination of two vessels of war were ordered the session. there for the same purpose.
In the annual message, the Orders were also given to the state of affairs in South Carolina commanders of the forts in the was alluded to, and an opinion harbour, to defend them against was expressed that the laws any assault to the last extremity, were fully adequate to the supand to be vigilant against all pression of all attempts which attempts to surprise them. might be made to prevent the
The forts were immediately execution of the laws. If, howput in a state of defence, and all ever, any difficulty should occur, the disposable force of the go- notice would be given to convernment was concentrated in gress, with a suggestion of the that quarter, but in such a man- the measures proper to remedy ner as not to render those move- the evil. ments obnoxious and offensive A revision of the tariff laws to the community.
was urged upon congress, and Moderation and forbearance a reduction of duties to the were inculcated on the part of standard of expenditure, was the commanding officers, and earnestly recommended. they were directed to act entirely The public debt, the message staon the defensive. Equal activity ted, was about to be extinguished, was evinced by the state autho- and this event presented a proper rities, in making preparations to occasion of reducing the duties. execute their designs. Depots The system of affording a perwere established for provisions petual protection in the shape of and military munitions, and the high duties, never entered into volunteers who were organized the minds of but few of our statesin different parts of the state, to men, and the only protection the number of 12,000, for the pur- anticipated, was that growing pose of sustaining the system of out of duties imposed for temponullification, were disciplined, as rary purposes. far as citizens could be, in the After stating that the protecduties of soldiers; and orders tion afforded should not exceed were issued, directing them to what may be necessary to hold themselves in readiness to counteract the regulations of take the field at a moment's other nations, and to secure a warning."
supply of articles essential to the The blow seemed to be im- countryin warit was recommendpending, which was to dissolve ed that the protection afforded by the Union, and to array the citi- duties higher than the ordinary zens of a state in deadly hostility revenue standard, should not be against the federal government. extended longer than was neces
In this aspect of affairs con