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his election, B. C. 65. All that the party as soon as Catiline appeared at the gates. of Catiline could accomplish was the According to Cicero and Sallust, it was election of Caius Antony, one of their the intention of the conspirators to set accomplices, as colleague of Cicero. This the city on fire, and massacre the inhabfailure, however, did not deprive Catiline itants. At any rate, these horrid conseof the hope of gaining the consulship the quences might have easily followed from following year. For this purpose, he re- the circumstances of the case, witbout doubled the measures of terror, by which any previous resolution. Lentulus, Cehe had laid the foundation of his power. thegus, and the other conspirators, in the Meanwhile, he had lost some of the most meanwhile, were carrying on their crimiimportant members of his conspiracy. nal plots. They applied to the ambassaAntony had been prevailed upon or com- dors of the Allobroges to transfer the pelled by Cicero to remain neutral. Cæ- war to the frontiers of Italy itself. These, sar and Crassus had resolved to do the however, revealed the plot, and their dissame. Piso had been killed in Spain. closures led to others still more imporItaly, however, was destitute of troops. tant. The correspondence of the conThe veterans of Sylla only waited the spirators with their leader was intercepted. signal to take up arms. This signal was The senate had now a notorious crime to now given by Catiline. The centuri- punish. As the circumstances of the on Manlius appeared among them, and case did not allow of a minute observformed a camp in Etruria. Cicero was ance of forms in the proceedings against on the watch: a fortunate accident dis- the conspirators, the laws relating thereto closed to him the counsels of the conspir- were disregarded, as had been done in
One of them, Curius, was on inti- former instances of less pressing danger. mate terms with a woman of doubtful Cæsar spoke against immediate execureputation, Fulvia by name, and had ac- tion, but Cicero and Cato prevailed. Five quainted her with their plans. Through of the conspirators were put to death. this woman, Cicero learnt that two Caius Antonius was then appointed to knights had undertaken to assassinate march against Catiline, but, on the prehim at his house. On the day which text of ill health, gave the command to they had fixed for the execution of their his lieutenant Petreius. He succeeded plan, they found the doors barred and in enclosing Catiline, who, seeing no way guarded. Still Cicero delayed to make of escape, resolved to die sword in hand. public the circumstances of a conspiracy, His followers imitated his example. The the progress and resources of which he battle was fought with bitter desperation. wished first to ascertain. He contented The insurgents all fell on the spot which himself with warning his fellow-citizens, their leader had assigned them, and Catiin general terms, of the impending dan- line at their head, at Pistoia, in Etruria, 5th ger. But when the insurrection of Man- Jan., B. C. 62. The history of Catiline's lius was made known, he procured the conspiracy has been written by Sallust. passage of the celebrated decree, that “the Catinat, Nicholas, marshal of France, consuls should take care that the republic born at Paris, 1637, quitted the protesreceived no detriment.” It was exceed- sion of the law for that of arms, after los, ingly difficult to seize the person of one ing a cause by a decision which appeared who had soldiers at his command, both to him evidently unjust. He entered the in and out of Rome; still more difficult cavalry, attracted the notice of Louis would it be to prove his guilt before those XIV, at the storming of Lille (1667), and who were accomplices with him, or, at was promoted. By a number of splendid least, were willing to make use of his deeds, he gained the esteem and friendplans to serve their own interest. He ship of the great Condé, particularly by had to choose between two evils-a revo- his conduct at the battle of Senef. He lution within the city, or a civil war: he was sent as lieutenant-general against the preferred the latter. Catiline had the duke of Savoy, gained the battles of Stafboldness to take his seat in the senate, fardo (Aug. 18, 1690) and of Marsaglia known as he was to be the enemy of the (Oct. 4, 1693), occupied Savoy and part Roman state. Cicero then rose and of Piedmont, and was made marshal in delivered that bold oration against him, 1693. In the conquered countries, his which was the means of saving Rome, by humanity and mildness often led him to driving Catiline from the city. The con- spare thie vanquished, contrary to the spirators who remained, Lentulus Sura, express commands of Louvois. In FlanCethegus, and other infamous senators, ders, he displayed the same activity, and engaged to head the insurrection in Rome took Ath, in 1697. In 1701, he received the command of the army of Italy against him. In court, and in the popular asprince Eugene ; but he was straitened by semblies, he answered to the fine definithe orders of his court, and was destitute tion which he himself gave of an orator, of money and provisions, while Eugene and which Quinctilian has preserved to was allowed to act with full liberty. July us; "a virtuous man skilled in the art of 6th, he was defeated at Carpi. Equally speaking well.” At the age of 30, he unfortunate was the battle of Chiari, went as military tribune to Sicily. In the where Villeroi had the chief command. following year, he was questor, at which It was here, while rallying his troops, period there commenced, between him after an unsuccessful charge, that he and Scipio, a rivalry and hatred, which replied to an officer who represented to lasted till death. Cato, who had returned him that death was inevitable in such an to Rome, accused Scipio of extravagance; encounter, “True, death is before us, but and, though his rival was acquitted of the shame behind." In spite of his repre- charge, this zeal in the cause of the pubsentations, the French court would not lic gained Cato a great influence over the believe the disasters in Savoy to be owing people. Five years after, having been to the perfidy of the duke of Savoy, and already edile, he was chosen pretor, and Catinat was disgraced. He bore his misfor- obtained the province of Sardinia. His tune with calmness, and died at St. Gra- strict moderation, integrity and love of tien, in 1712. He was a true philosopher, justice were here still more strongly disreligious without austerity, a courtier played than in Rome. On this island, he without intrigue, disinterested and gener- formed an acquaintance with the poet ous when in favor, and cheerful in dis- Ennius, of whom he learnt Greek, and grace. From his unalterable calmness whom he took with him to Rome on his and consideration, his soldiers called him return. He was finally made consul, 193 Le Père de la Pensée.
B. C., with his friend Valerius Flaccus Cato the Censor (Marcus Porcius), sur- for his colleague. He opposed, with all his named Priscus, also Sapiens and Major power, the abolition of the Oppian law, (the Wise and the Elder)
, born 232 B. C., passed in the pressing times of the second at Tusculum, inherited from his father, a Punic war, forbidding the Roman women plebeian, a small estate, in the territory of to wear more than half an ounce of gold, the Sabines, which he cultivated with his to dress in garments of various colors, or own hands. He was a youth at the time to wear other ornaments; but he was of Hannibal's invasion of Italy. He obliged to yield to the eloquence of the served his first campaign, at the age of 17, tribune Valerius, and the urgent importuunder Fabius Maximus, when he besieged nities of the women. Soon after, he set Capua Five years after, he fought under out for Spain, which was in a state of the same commander at the siege of Ta- rebellion. His first act was to send back rentum. After the capture of this city, to Rome the supplies which had been he became acquainted with the Pythago- provided for the army, declaring that the rean Nearchus, who initiated him into the war ought to support the soldiers. He sublime doctrines of his philosophy, with gained several victories with a newlywhich, in practice, he was already con- raised army, reduced the province to subversant. After the war was ended, Cato mission, and returned to Italy, where the returned to his farm. As he was versed honor of a triumph was granted to him. in the laws, and a fluent speaker, he went, Scarcely had he descended from his triat day-break, to the neighboring towns, umphal car, when he put off the toga of where he acted as counsellor and advo- the consul, arrayed himself in the solcate to those who applied to him. Vale- dier’s habit, and followed Sempronius to rius -Flaccus, a noble and powerful Ro- Thrace. He afterwards put himself unman, who had an estate in the vicinity, der the command of the consul Manius observed the talents and virtues of the Acilius, to fight against Antiochus, and to youth, conceived an affection for him, and carry on the war in Thessaly. By a bold persuaded him to remove to Rome, where march, he made himself master of the he promised to assist him with his in- Callidromus, one of the highest peaks of fluence and patronage. A few rich and the mountain pass of Thermopylæ, and bigh-born families then stood at the head thus decided the issue of the battle. He of the republic. Cato was poor and un- brought the intelligence of this victory to known, but his eloquence, which some Rome, 189 B. C. Seven years after, he compared to that of Demosthenes, and obtained, in spite of a powerful faction the integrity and strength of his charac- opposed to him, the most bonorable, and ter, soon drew the public attention to at the same time the most feared, of all the magistracies of Rome, the censorship of the Roman people, which is frequently He had not canvassed for the office, but quoted by the old historians. had only expressed his willingness to fill Caro, Marcus Porcius (called, to disit. In compliance with his wishes, Vale- tinguish him from the censor, his great rius Flaccus was chosen his colleague, grandfather, Cato of Utica, the place as the only person qualified to assist him of his death), was born 93 B. C., and, afin correcting the public disorders, and re- ter the death of his parents, was brought storing the ancient purity of morals. He up in the house of his uncle, Livius Drufulfilled this trust with inflexible rigor; sus. He early discovered great maturity and, though his measures caused him of judgment and firmness of character. some obloquy and opposition, they met, It is related of him, that, in his 14th year, in the end, with the highest applause; when he saw the heads of several proand, when he resigned his office, it was scribed persons in the house of Sylla, by resolved to erect a statue to him with an whose orders they had been murdered, honorable inscription. He appears to he demanded a sword of his teacher, to have been quite indifferent to the honor; stab the tyrant, and free his country from and when, before this, some one express- servitude. With his brother by the ed his wonder that no statue had been mother's side, Cæpio, he lived in the tenerected to him, he answered, “I would derest friendship. Cato was chosen priest rather have it asked why no image has of Apollo. He formed an intimacy with been erected to Cato than why one has.” the Stoic Antipater of Tyre, and ever Still he was not void of self-complacency. remained true to the principles of the “ Is he a Cato, then?” he was accustom- Stoic philosophy. His first appearance ed to say, when he would excuse the er- in public was against the tribunes of the rors of another. Cato's political life was people, who wished to pull down a basila continued warfare. He was continually ica erected by the censor Cato, which was accusing, and was himself accused with in their way. On this occasion, he disanimosity, but was always acquitted. His played that powerful eloquence, which last public commission was an embassy afterwards rendered him so formidable, to Carthage, to settle the dispute between and won the cause. He served his first the Carthaginians and king Massinissa. campaign as a volunteer in the war It is said that this journey was the origin- against Spartacus, and distinguished himal cause of the destruction of Carthage; self so highly, that the pretor Gellius for Cato was so astonished at the rapid awarded him a prize, which he refused. recovery of this city from its losses, that He was sent as military tribune to Macehe ever after ended every speech of his donia. When the term of his office had with the well-known words, “ Præterea expired, he travelled into Asia, and carcenseo, Carthaginem esse delendam” (I am ried the Stoic Athenodorus with him to also of opinion that Carthage must be de- Rome. He was next made questor, and stroyed). He died a year after his return executed his difficult trust with the strict(147 B. C.), 85 years old. Cato, who was est integrity, while he had the spirit to so frugal of the public revenues, was not prosecute the public officers for their acts indifferent to riches. He was rigorously of extortion and violence. His conduct severe towards his slaves, and considered gained him the admiration and love of them quite in the light of property. He the Romans, so that, on the last day of his made every exertion to promote and im- questorship, he was escorted to his house prove agriculture. In his old age, he gave by the whole assembly of the people. himself up to the company of his friends The fame of his virtue spread far and and the pleasures of the table. To this wide. In the games of Flora, the dancers the verses of Horace allude
were not allowed to lay aside their gar
ments as long as Cato was present. The Narratur et prisci Catonis Sarpe mero caluisse virtus.
troubles of the state did not permit him
to remain in seclusion. The example of He was twice married, and had a son by Sylla, in usurping supreme power, was each of his wives. His conduct as a hus- followed by many ambitious men, whose hand and a father was equally exemplary, mutual dissensions were all that saved He composed a multitude of works, of the tottering constitution from inmediate which the only one extant is that De Re ruin. Crassus hoped to purchase the Rustica. Those of which the loss is most sovereignty with his gold ; Poinpey exto be regretted are his orations, which pected that it would be voluntarily conCicero mentions in terms of the highest ferred upon hiin; and Cæsar, superior to encomium, and his history of the origin both in talent, united himself
to both, and
made use of the wealth of the one, and death of Crassus, the civil commotions the reputation of the other, to attain his increased, and Cato, as the only means of own objects. At the head of the senate, preventing greater evils, proposed that the sole prop of the republic, stood Catu- Pompey should be made sole consul, conlus, Cicero and Cato. Lucullus, who trary to the constitution, and the proposistood very high in the favor of the army, tion was adopted. The year following, which he had so victoriously commanded, Cato lost the constilship by refusing to might alone have upheld the senate, had take the steps necessary for obtaining it. he not been more desirous to enjoy his At this time the civil war broke out. wealth than to devote himself to the care Cato, then propretor in Sicily, on the arof the commonwealth. Cato, keeping rival of Curio with three of Cæsar's lealoof from all parties, served the common- gions, departed for the camp of Pompey, wealth with sagacity and courage ; but he at Dyrrachium. He had still been in often injured the cause, which he was hopes to prevent the war by negotiation ; trying to benefit, by the inflexibility of his and when it broke out, he put on mourncharacter. He was on the way to hising in token of his grief. Pompey, havestate, when he met Metellus Nepos, who ing been victorious at Dyrrachium, left was travelling to Rome to canvass for the Cato behind to guard the military chest tribuneship. Knowing him to be a dan- and magazine, while he pushed after his gerous man, Cato returned immediately, rival. For this reason, Cato was not stood candidate for the office himself, present at the battle of Pharsalia, after and was chosen, together with Metellus. which he sailed over with his troops to About this time, the conspiracy of Cati- Cyrene, in Africa. Here he learned that line broke out. Cato supported, with all Pompey's father-in-law, Scipio, bad gone his power, the consul Cicero, first gave to Juba, king of Mauritania, where Varus bim publicly the name of father of his had collected a considerable force. Cato country, and urged, in a fine speech pre- immediately set off to join him, and, afserved by Sallust, the rigorous punish- ter undergoing hunger, thirst and every ment of the traitors. He opposed the hardship, reached Utica, where the two proposition of Metellus Nepos to recall armies effected a junction. The soldiers Pompey from Asia, and give him the wished him to be their general, but he command against Catiline, and came near gave this office to Scipio, and took the losing his life in a riot excited against him command in Utica, while Scipio and Laon this account by his colleague and bienus sallied out against Cæsar. Cato Cæsar. After the return of Pompey, he bad advised them to protract the war, frustrated many of his ambitious plans, but they ventured an engagement, in and first predicted the consequences of which they were entirely defeated, and his union with Crassus and Cæsar. He Africa submitted to the victor. Cato had afterwards opposed, but in vain, the di- at first determined to defend himself to vision of lands in Campania. Cæsar at the last, with the senators in the place; that time abused his power so much as but he afterwards abandoned this plan, to send Cato to prison, but was constrain- and dismissed all who wished to leave ed, by the murmurs of the people, to set him. His resolution was taken. On the him at liberty. The triumvirate, in order evening before the day which he had fixto remove him to a distance, had him ed upon for executing it, he took a transent to Cyprus, to depose king Ptolemy, quil meal, and discussed various philounder some frivolous pretext. He was sophical subjects. He then retired to his compelled to obey, and executed his com- chamber, and 'read the Phædo of Plato. mission with so much address that he en- Anticipating his intentions, his friends riched the treasury with a larger sum had taken away his sword. On finding than had ever been deposited in it by any that it was gone, he called his slaves, and private man. In the mean time, he con- demanded it with apparent equanimity; tinued bis opposition to the triumvirate. but when they still delayed to bring it, he Endeavoring to prevent the passage of struck one of the slaves, who was enthe Tribonian law, which invested "Cras- deavoring to pacify him. His son and sus with an extraordinary power, he was his friends came with tears, and besought a second time arrested; but the people him to refrain from his purpose. At first followed him in a body to the prison, and he reproached his son for disobedience, his enemies were compelled to release then calmly advised those present to subhim. Being afterwards made pretor, he mit to Cæsar, and dismissed all but the carried into execution a law against brib- philosophers Demetrius and Apollonius, ery, that displeased all parties. After the whom he asked if they knew any way by which he could continue to live without above the level of tide water, a large and being false to his principles. They were commodious house has been erected for silent, and left bim, weeping. He then the accommodation of visitors. It is received his sword joyfully, again read situated directly on the brow of the Phædo, slept awhile, and, on awaking, mountain, and commands an enchantsent to the port to inquire if his friends ing view of the country on both sides of had departed. He heard, with a sigh, the Hudson, embracing a tract about 100 that the sea was tempestuous. He had miles in length and 50 in breadth. This again sunk into slumber, when word was place, which is 12 miles from the town brought him that the sea was calm, and of Catskill, is approached by a good turnthat all was tranquil in the harbor. He pike road, which winds up the side of the appeared satisfied, and was scarcely alone mountain. Two miles west of Pine when he stabbed himself with his sword. Orchard are the fine cascades of the The people rushed in, and took advan- Kaaterskill, a stream which is supplied tage of a swoon, into which he had fallen, by two small lakes situated high in the to bind up his wounds; but, on coming mountains. The upper fall is 175 feet in to himself, he tore off the bandages, and height; and a few rods below is the other, expired (44 B. C.). The Uticans buried of 80 feet, both perpendicular. The him honorably, and erected a statue to stream passes into a deep and very pichim. But Cæsar, when he heard the turesque ravine, which is bordered by news of his death, exclaimed, “I grudge mountains rising abruptly 1000 or 1500 thee thy death, since thou hast grudged feet. me the honor of sparing thy life.” The Catsup. (See Ketchup.) truly Roman virtue of Cato has been cel- CATTARO ; a seaport in Dalmatia, capiebrated by Lucan, in his Pharsalia, in a tal of a circle of the same name (formerly truly Roman style, with the words called Venetian Albania), at the bottom of Victrix causa diis placuit, sed victa Catoni.
the gulf of Cattaro (bocche di Cattaro), on
the E. side of the Adriatic ; 25 miles W. CATOPTHCS (from xáronspor, a mirror); N. W. Scutari, 30 S. S. E. Ragusa ; lon. the science which treats of reflected light. 18° 58' E.; lat. 42° 17' N.; population, (See Optics.)
2500. It is a bishop's see.
It contains a Cats, James; born in 1577, at Brou- cathedral, 17 Catholic churches and chapwershaven, in Zealand ; one of the fathers els, 1 Greek church, and an hospital. It of the Dutch language and poetry. He has a remarkable harbor, one of the most studied at Leyden and Orleans. In 1627 secure in Europe, being defended by a and 1631, he was ambassador to England, castle and strong battlements, and enand afterwards grand pensioner of Hol- closed with rocks of such height, that the land. His poetry is distinguished for sun is seen in winter only a few hours in simplicity, naiveté, richness of imagina- the day. Population of the circle, 31,570; tion, and winning though unpretending square miles, 296. morality. His works consist of allegories, CATTEGAT; a large gulf of the North according to the taste of his times, poems sea, between North Jutland to the W., on the different ages and situations of Norway to the E., and the Danish islands life, idyls, &c. He died in 1660.
of Zealand, Funen, &c. to the S.; about Cat's-EYE. (See Asteria and Quartz.) 120 miles from N. to S., and between 60
CATSKILL MOUNTAINS ; a range of and 70 from E. to W. The adverse mountains in New York, much the high- winds which often prevail here render est in the state. They extend along to the navigation dangerous. The Cattegat the west of the Hudson, from which is noted for its herring fishery. It contheir base is, at the nearest point, eight tains the islands Samsoe, Anholt, Lessoe miles distant. The principal summits and Hertzholm. are in Greene county. The two most CATTI; one of the most renowned and elevated peaks are Round Top and High valiant German tribes. They inhabited Peak. The former, according to the what is now Hesse, also part of Franconia measurement of captain Partridge, is and Westphalia. They carried on bloody 3804 feet above the level of tide water; wars with the Hermunduri and Cherusci. and the latter, 3718 feet. The Catskill In the time of Cæsar, they dwelt on the mountains present scenery of singular Lahn, and opposed him with effect. Drubeauty and grandeur, and have become a sus defeated without reducing them. In noted resort of travellers during the sum- the reign of Marcus Aurelius, they made
On a level tract of about 7 acres, incursions into Germany and Thrace, but called Pine Orchard, elevated 2214 feet were afterwards defeated by Didius Juli