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injunctions, etc. Decisions may be appealed to the supreme court.

The Supreme Court.-- The supreme court is the highest court of the State. It consists of one chief judge and six associate judges. Three general terms of supreme court are held each year in Montpelier in January, May, and October. The supreme court determines questions of law sent to it by the lower courts, by a bill of exceptions plainly stating the facts in the case and the claimed errors of law to which exceptions were taken at the trial ; and said court also has jurisdiction of such petitions not triable by jury as are by law brought before it.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT TEST.

1. Of what three departments does the United States Government

consist ? 2. State in a general way the duties of each. 3. What is the Constitution ? Congress ? the Senate ? the House of

Representatives ? 4. Explain how laws are made. 5. Do you live under any other governments besides the National

Government ? If so, what are they, and in what ways are they

similar to the National Government ? 6. How are the powers of these lesser governments limited ? 7. What is the Legislature, and when and where does it meet ?

What is the difference between the State capital and the State

Capitol ? 8. What are the duties of the Senate ? of the House ? Of how many

members does each body consist, and how are they elected ? 9. How may the constitution be amended ? 10. In what different ways are State officers chosen ? 11. Who is the chief executive officer of the State ? What are some

of his duties? Who is the present incumbent ? 12. Name some of the duties of the Secretary of State, State Treas

urer, Auditor of Accounts, State Superintendent of Education. Name present incumbents.

13. What can you tell of the Vermont militia and officers ? 14. How is the State government supported ? 15. What are the two most prominent political parties of the State ? 16. What is a caucus, and what work is done in a caucus ? 17. Describe the political conventions and their work. . 18. Describe the freemen's meetings of Vermont. 19. How is the Governor of the State elected ? 20. How do we elect our United States Senators ? Who are the pres

ent incumbents ? 21. Describe our part in the election of President. 22. Tell all you can about the government of a county and the duties

of its officers. 23. What are the chief town officers, and how are they elected ? 24. What are the duties of the town clerk, the treasurer, the auditor,

the selectmen, the constable, the school directors, the town

superintendent of schools ? 25. Of what does the legislative branch of the town government

consist ? 26. Describe the town meeting. 27. Who are the voters in town meeting? in freemen's meeting? 28. Describe the process of voting in freemen's meetings; also the

polling places. 29. How and for what purposes are taxes raised in a town? 30. What are the listers of a town? What is a poll-tax, a property

tax, the grand list of a town? 31. The real estate value of a certain town is $823,656; the personal

estate for taxation, $176,131; and the number of taxable polls,

630. What is the grand list? Answer, $11,257.87. 32. Of what does the judicial department of any government consist ?

What is a court ? 33. What are judges ? juries ? 34. Describe a jury trial. 35. What is the difference between a civil and a criminal case ? 36. Into what two great classes may the courts of our county be

divided ? 37. Name the Vermont State courts. 38. What is the lowest court and what cases are tried in it ? 39. Describe the probate courts. 40. What cases are tried in county court ? court of chancery ? 41. Where and how often does the supreme court meet, and what is

its jurisdiction ?

THE CONSTITUTION OF VERMONT.

PART I.

A DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS

OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE STATE

OF VERMONT.

ARTICLE 1st. That all men are born equally free and independent, and have certain natural, inherent, and unalienable rights, amongst which are the enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety; therefore no male person born in this country, or brought from over sea, ought to be bolden by law to serve any person as a servant, slave, or apprentice after he arrives to the age of twentyone years, nor female in like manner after she arrives to the age of eighteen years, unless they are bound by their own consent, after they arrive to such age, or bound by law for the payment of debts, damages, fines, costs, or the like.

ARTICLE 2nd. That private property ought to be subservient to public uses when necessity requires it; nevertheless, whenever any person's property is taken for the use of the public, the owner ought to receive an equivalent in money.

ARTICLE 3rd. That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences and understandings, as in their opinion shall be regulated by the word of God; and that no man ought to, or of right can be compelled to, attend any religious worship, or erect or support any place of worship, or maintain any minister, contrary to the dictates of his conscience, nor can any man be justly deprived or abridged of any civil right as a citizen, on account of his religious sentiments, or peculia[r] mode of religious worship; and that no authority can, or ought to be vested in, or assumed by, any power whatever, that shall in any case interfere with, or in any manner control the rights of conscience in the free exercise of religious worship. Nevertheless, every sect or denomination of Christians ought to observe the Sabbath or Lord's day, and keep up some sort of religious worship which to them shall seem most agreeable to the revealed will of God.

ARTICLE 4th. Every person within this State ought to find a certain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property or character ; he ought to obtain right and justice, freely, and without being obliged to purchase it ; completely and without any denial ; promptly and without delay; conformably to the laws.

Article 5th. That the people of this State by their legal representatives have the sole, inherent, and exclusive right of governing and regulating the internal police of the same. ARTICLE 6th.

That all power being originally inherent in and co[n]sequently derived from the people, therefore, all officers of gove ernment, whether legislative or executive, are their trustees and serv. ants; and at all times, in a legal way, accountable to them.

ARTICLE 7th. That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation, or community, and not for the particular emolument or advantage of any single man, family or set of men who are a part only of that community; and that the community hath an indubitable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to reform or alter government in such manner as shall be, by that community, judged most conducive to the public weal.

ARTICLE 8th. That all elections ought to be free and without corruption, and that all freemen, having a sufficient, evident, common interest with and attachment to the community, have a right to elect officers, and be elected into office, agreeably to the regulations made in this constitution.

ARTICLE 9th. That every member of society hath a right to be protected in the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property, and therefore is bound to contribute his proportion toward the expense of that protection, and yield his personal service, when necessary, or an equivalent thereto, but no part of any person's property can be justly taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his own consent, or that of the Representative Body of the freemen, nor can any man who is conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms be justly compelled thereto, if he will pay such equivalent; nor are the people bound by any law but such as they have in like manner assented to for their common good : and previous to any law being made to raise a tax, the purpose for which it is to be raised ought to appear evident to the Legislature to be of more service to community than the money would be if not collected.

ARTICLE 10th. That in all prosecutions for criminal offenses a person hath a right to be heard by himself and his counsel; to demand the cause and nature of his accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses; to call for evidence in his favor, and a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the country; without the unanimous consent of which jury he cannot be found guilty ; nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself; nor can any person be justly deprived of his liberty, except by the laws of the land, or the judgment of his peers.

ARTICLE 11th. That the people have a right to hold themselves, their houses, papers, and possessions free from search or seizure; and therefore warrants, without oath or affirmation first made, affording sufficient foundation for them, and whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded or required to search suspected places, or to seize any person or persons, his, her, or their property, not particularly described, are contrary to that right, and ought not to be granted.

ARTICLE 12th That when any issue in fact, proper for the cognizance of a jury, is joined in a court of law, the parties have a right to trial by jury, which ought to be held sacred.

ARTICLE 13th That the people have the right to freedom of speech, and of writing and publishing their sentiments, concerning the transactions of government, and therefore the freedom of the press ought not to be restrained.

ARTICLE 14th. The freedom of deliberation, speech, and debate in the Legislature is so essential to the rights of the people, that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation or prosecution, action or complaint, in any other court or place whatsoever.

ARTICLE 15th. The power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, ought never to be exercised but by the Legislature, or by authority derived from it, to be exercised in such particular cases as this constitution, or the Legislature shall provide for.

ARTICLE 16th. That the people have a right to bear arms for the defense of themselves and the State—and as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to and governed by the civil power.

ARTICLE 17th. That no person in this State can in any case be subjected to law martial, or to any penalties or pains by virtue of that law, except those employed in the army, and the militia in actual service.

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