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JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT

Supreme Court.- The judicial department of the State consists of the Supreme Court of the State. This branch will be considered under the subject of “ Courts.”

SUPPORT OF GOVERNMENT— POLITICAL PARTIES AND

THEIR MEETINGS-SOME ELECTIONS

Taxation.-It takes a great deal of money to run a government. Public officers must be paid for their servces; and courts and public institutions must be sustained. There are public buildings to be erected, roads to be made, and many other things that require money. As the government is for the benefit of the people, the people must pay the cost; and the State raises the money by taxation. By law it lays a tax on the taxable polls and property of the State. County taxes, above a certain per cent, are also fixed by the State in General Assembly.

To help meet the State expenses, the State also lays a tax upon certain corporations. The amount of this tax is governed usually by the amount of income. All corporations, except those organized for religious or charitable purposes, are required to pay an annual license. These taxes are paid directly by the corporations to the State.

Other taxes are paid to the State from the several town treasuries on the order of the selectmen, being collected by the town officers as a part of the town tax.

Political Parties; Political Meetings. — The government of the State is conducted by officials chosen by parties; and most of the citizens of the State act with either the Republican or the Democratic party. A meeting of the members of a party in a town or a city ward to transact business for the party is called a caucus; hence such a meeting is spoken of as a town caucus or a ward caucas.

A meeting of a party in a county, congressional district, State, or nation is called a convention; hence they

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are spoken of as county, district, State, and national conventions.

The smaller parties of a county sometimes hold massmeetings to which all the voters of the party are invited; and all who come are entitled to vote. The larger parties usually hold delegate conventions; the number of delegates sent from each town is proportioned according to the number of votes cast by the party in that town.

The district and State conventions are delegate conventions. The district convention is composed of delegates from the towns of a district; and the State convention of delegates from the towns of the State.

The national convention is composed of delegates from the States. Each State is entitled to send two delegates for each senator and representative she sends to Congress. As Vermont sends two senators and two representatives to that body she is, therefore, entitled to send eight delegates to the national convention.

Duties of Caucuses.—Caucuses elect delegates to send to conventions. They also nominate the choice of their party for town representative and justices of the peace, and choose town committees to act in the interest of their party.

Duties of Conventions.—The county conventions nominate county officers for their party, and choose a county committee. The conventions of the congressional districts nominate the choice of their party for Representatives to Congress and for presidential electors. They elect their proportion of delegates to the national convention, and choose a district committee to act for their party.

State conventions elect delegates to the national convention, nominate such State officers as may be voted for in freemen's meetings, and choose a State committee.

The national convention nominates a President and a Vice-President, chooses a national committee, and declares the platform of its party.

Freemen's Meetings. For the election of representatives to Congress; Statc, county, and probate officers; and town representatives to the State Legislature, freemen's meetings are held in the towns every two years. These are held on the first Tuesday in September of each year whose number is divisible by two.

Once in four years a freemen's meeting is held to choose presidential electors (those who shall cast the vote of the State for President and Vice-President). This meeting is held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November of those years whose number is divisible by four.

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Freemen's meetings are, in reality, town meetings; but, as their purpose is largely for the election of State and county officers, it seems fitting that this subject should have a place under the head of “State Government." Freemen's meetings are, as a matter of fact, political meetings; and the March meetings are business meetings.

The Election of Governor. We have said that the State convention, among its other duties, nominates such State

officers as may be voted for in freemen’s meetings. The Governor, Lieut.-Governor, and others are so nominated.

The State committee, who have been chosen at a previous convention, call a State convention. The towns hold caucuses to elect delegates to send to this convention. The State convention meets and nominates, among other State officers, a candidate for Governor. Each of the po- ! litical parties separately nominates a candidate for Governor; and in the September meeting of the freemen the several candidates are voted for. The candidate who has a majority of all the votes cast for Governor is elected. In case no candidate receives such majority, the election is left to the General Assembly.

Election of United States Senators.—Any one who so desires may announce himself a candidate for the United States senatorship. The different candidates are voted for in both branches of the Legislature, and that person who receives a majority of all the votes cast in each House is elected. If no candidate receives a majority in both Houses, the two Houses then meet in joint assembly and elect by a majority vote.

Our part in the Nomination and Election of President. -Once in four years the State committee of a party calls a convention to elect delegates for a national convention, each State being entitled to elect four for that purpose. Each congressional district is also entitled to send two delegates to the national convention, and they too call conventions. The towns then call caucuses to elect delegates to these conventions. The conventions are held and elect their delegates, who appear at the national convention. The national convention then nominates a candidate for President of the United States and also one for Vice

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