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teen years to attend school at least twenty-six weeks, unless physically or mentally unable, or unless said pupil has already completed the studies required by law. Hence the child of average intelligence must get a fair education wherever the law is enforced. And in view of the many advantages offered in the way of free high schools, scholar

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ships in other institutions that may be had for the asking, and the many means furnished for self-help everywhere, we must conclude that in the case of the young person who does not do better than to get a common school education, it is a lack of energy rather than of opportunity.

. We have spoken, in connection with the Civil War, of the splendid military record of Norwich University ; but

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no less true has been the service of other schools and colleges of the State, though it has been of a different character. Upon the list of Middlebury College graduates we find clergymen and missionaries equalling in number fully one-third of the entire list, as well as teachers, lawyers, statesmen, and men of letters, who have gained wide distinction. The product of the University of Vermont includes eminent men of varied professions : doctors, lawyers, judges, authors, and practical men of affairs, who with reason profess loyal affection for their alma mater.

The Huntington Fund.- Arunah Huntington, of Brantford, Canada, a native Vermonter, left the State of Vermont $211,131.46, the interest of which was to be divided among the towns, in proportion to their population, for the support of schools. This became available in 1886.

Libraries. The public library now forms an important factor in the furtherance of education. In the year 1875 there were only seven public libraries in the State of Vermont, and at the present time (1904) the number exceeds one hundred.

CHAPTER XXXIII

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS OF INTEREST-INDUSTRIES

Constitutional Amendments. In the year 1870 the con stitution of Vermont was so amended as to provide for biennial in place of annual sessions of the Legislature, increasing also the term of State and county officers to two years instead of one.

Population; Representatives in Congress.—The population of Vermont in 1870 (330,551) was about double what it was in 1800. It has since remained practically stationary, though increasing slightly, the greatest increase being between the years 1890 and 1900. The census of 1900 showed a population of 343,641, and a gain in the preceding decade of about 11,000. Since the year 1880 Vermont has had two representatives in Congress.

Cities Incorporated.— There are now six cities in the State: Vergennes, Burlington, Rutland, Montpelier, Barre, and St. Albans. All except Vergennes have been incorporated as cities during this period. Burlington has the largest population.

Benevolent Institutions.--Vermont does not lack her benevolent institutions. Among the prominent ones instituted in the last half century are the Vermont Soldiers' Home, established at Bennington, in 1884 ; and the Vermont State Hospital for the Insane, at Waterbury, in 1891.

The State Flower.--By act of the Legislature of 1894 the red clover was made the State flower of Vermont.

Fort Ethan Allen.—A military post, called Fort Ethan Allen, has been established at Essex, the first garrison to arrive in September, 1894.

The Telephone; Electric Lights; Electric Roads; Railroads. --The original patent for the Bell telephone was issued in 1876, and it was only two or three years later that telephones appeared in the State of Vermont. They were at first local, Burlington being the first in the State to adopt

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their use.

The first trunk line was run from Montpelier to Burlington in 1883.

A great effulgence burst upon nearly every large village in the State on the coming of the electric light some time in the '80s, and closely following appeared the electric road. The first electric road was opened for operation in Rutland in 1885; and now the lines of this railway are fast threading their course through the State.

The railroads are still branching ont, now spanning the waters of Lake Champlain to reach the islands of the lake.

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