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Albans; and by the 19th there were between thirty and forty of them, guests at the different hotels. As they were clad in citizens' clothes and were quiet and orderly in behavior, they occasioned no suspicion. About three o'clock on the afternoon of October 19, at a given signal, the marauders took armed possession of the business part of the village, at the same time making raids upon the three banks and compelling the cashiers to give up the funds of the banks.

Taking horses from the stables and from the street, they rode out of town, carrying with them over $200,000. Shots were exchanged between the raiders and citizens, and several persons were wounded, and one was killed. They were pursued into Canada by mounted horsemen, citizens of the town, under Captain Conger, a veteran of the First Vermont Cavalry, who had recently returned from the South. They succeeded in capturing fourteen of the raiders on Canadian soil, but were obliged to give them up to the authorities of that dominion.

To guard against further invasion, companies of cavalry were raised in the northern part of the State, which constituted the First Regiment of Frontier Cavalry ; and a company of infantry was also raised to be used as home guards.

Vermont's Record; her Ensign.—The record made by Vermont in the War of the Rebellion forms one of the most brilliant of the many grand chapters of her history. The patriotism and bravery of her soldiery won the admiration of the whole country, and deservedly so.

Of Vermont's able-bodied men, every other one shouldered his musket and went forth to serve his country. Vermont furnished during the war over thirty-five thousand men, according to the report of the War Department, though the number credited by the State was over a thousand less in number. She also expended of her treasure nearly $10,000,000 in in defense of the Union, more than half of which was expended by the towns without any expectation of being reimbursed. Seventy-one Norwich University men from Vermont served in the various organizations as officers, and in addition nearly one hundred served as State drill officers. Vermont's total loss in killed was 5,237 men, or about one in seven of those in service—a record which Pennsylvania's record alone exceeded.

The ensign carried by all regiments except the First consisted of a blue silk flag upon which was the State coat of arms.

TEST.

1. What was the cause of the Civil War? 2. State the number of troops of the President's call and Vermont's

quota. 3. In what way did Vermont respond? 4 Give the prominent divisions of an army with their commanding

officers. 5. What was the service of the First Vermont Regiment? 6. What regiments constituted the First Vermont Brigade? 7. What was its record ? 8. Give the record of the First Vermont Cavalry. 9. Of the Seventh and Eighth regiments. 10. Of the Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh regiments. 11. What regiments constituted the Second Vermont Brigade? 12. What was the record of the Second Vermont Brigade? 13. Give a record of the Seventeenth Vermont Regiment. 14. Give an account of the St. Albans raid. 15. What precautions were taken to prevent further incursions of this

kind? 16. About how many men did Vermont furnish during the war?

17. How much money did she furnish? 18. What was her death record ? 19. The record of what State alone exceeded this? 20. What ensign was carried by the First Vermont Regiment? By all

others?

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The Fenian Raid.—On the first day of Jue, 1866, there suddenly appeared in the village of St. Albans a body of about three hundred strangers. They had come by rail from the South; and trains coming later brought others, until, all told, the force numbered probably 1,200 men. They were in general poorly clad and not prepossessing in appearance, and did not patronize the hotels as did the raiders of two years previous to this time, but purchased supplies at the village markets.

Naturally their strange arrival created some alarm at first; but, as they offered no injury either to persons or property, all fear of them was soon dispelled. They camped that night on the green, or found shelter in neighboring barns, and the next morning marched the north, without form or order. The night of June 6th they camped in Franklin; and, as it was a stormy night, they sought every available shelter, much to the disquietude of the people of that town. The next morning they advanced into Canada, and about seventy rods across the line established their headquarters.

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This formidable force proved to be a portion of the army of Ireland, which was invading Canada for the purpose of overthrowing there the British rule, thus to avenge the wrongs which the Irish people claimed they had received from the English Government.

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The only aggressive measure taken by the raiders was to plunder one village, when, from some cause, they became discouraged and decided to abandon further invasion. Then commenced the return march ; and just as the force was entering St. Albans, it was met by General Meade, the hero of Gettysburg, who had come with United States troops to prevent riot and enforce the neutrality laws. Through General Meade the invaders were furnished trans

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