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a welcome and was sheltered, fed, encouraged, and aided on his way from bondage to freedom.

This old house, where the Robinson family yet live, still has the secret staircase, narrow and dark, up which many a fugitive slave noiselessly glided to the chamber

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above, which was partitioned off from the rest of the house and was to the children of the family an unexplored mystery. At times the children knew that plates of food were being carried to the chamber above, but they well understood that they were to ask no questions and never to speak of their mysterious guest.


1. What were two of the most prominent changes brought about by

the War of 1812 ? 2. Describe the commerce of the period on Lake Champlain, 3. Describe the commerce on the Connecticut. 4. Describe the overland commerce. 5. What were the modes of travel up to the coming of the railroad ? 6. What changes came about in the home life during this period ? 7. Give an account of the change in industries. 8. When and where was the first Catholic church built in the State ? 9. What steps were taken toward temperance reform in this period ? 10. What advances.were made in school matters ? 11. Name some of the permanent high grade schools. 12. What university was incorporated and when ? 13. When was the State Senate established, and what were its duties ? 14. What was the last county to be formed ? 15. Describe the Vermont flag ; the Vermont coat of arms. 16. Give an account of the mass-meeting on Stratton Mountain. 17. Give something of a description of the second and third State

Houses. 18. What are the three most prominent mineral industries of the

State ? 19. About what part of the nineteenth century marks quarrying as a

prominent industry of the State ? 20. What quarries were opened at this time ? 21. What historical works produced by Vermonters during this period

are worthy of mention ? 22. Who was the only successful writer of fiction in Vermont during

the period ? 23. Who were Vermont's most famous poets ? 24. What prominent artists did Vermont produce during this period ? 25. What sculptors did she produce ? 26. When were railroads and the telegraph introduced into the State ? 27. What interesting fossils were unearthed during the building of the

railroads ?

28. What were some of the changes wrought by the coming of the

railroad ? 29. What political subject was foremost in the public mind, the last

part of this period ? 30. On which side of the question were a large majority of the Ver

monters? 31. By what acts did they show their principles ?






Cause of the Civil War; its Opening.-The most prominent question before the public mind had now for some time been that in regard to slavery. Slavery had become very profitable in the South, and for that reason was gaining in strength in that section. Many people in the country believed it an evil, and feared it might in time become a national institution, if something were not done to check its spread. The slave-owners in the South, moreover, claimed that as slaves were property they could be carried into any State, whether it were a slave State or otherwise, and there be protected the same as any other property. The anti-slavery advocates denied this right, believing that, if this were allowed, any State might become a slave State.

The Republicans, as a party, were much opposed to the carrying of slavery beyond the States in which it already existed ; and when, in 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected President by that party, the South feared that the institution of slavery was endangered. Believing that the election of Lincoln and its attendant anti-slavery sentiment would weaken the slave-owners' influence and perhaps finally exterminate slavery altogether, they decided to withdraw from the Union and form a confederation of their own, where the right of holding slaves would not be questioned. South Carolina led off and soon after the solid South followed, declaring themselves a new and distinct nation by the name of the Confederate States of America. This was contrary to the Constitution, and war now became necessary for the preservation of the Union. The war opened with the firing of the Secessionists upon Fort Sumter, South Carolina, in April, 1861.

The President's Call; the Response. On the day of the surrender of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 soldiers to defend the Union, and asked Vermont to furnish 180 of these.

There were a few companies of militia in Vermont at that time, but all told they did not equal the number of men required. Governor Fairbanks at once issued a proclamation announcing the breaking out of the war and the President's call for volunteers, and summoned an extra session of the Legislature to make provision therefor.

At once, men from all parts of the State volunteered ; banks and individuals tendered the use of their money ; railroads and steamboats offered free transportation for troops and military stores ; and loyal women from all over the State were busy with thread and needle, preparing underwear and other comforts for the soldiers. Two hundred Burlington ladies resolved to give their entire time, if needed, to the cause.

The train which, on April 23, brought the legislators to Montpelier was saluted by two cannon captured at

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