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return from Europe in 1855, receiving a large number of pupils, over whom he exerted a great influence and by whom

he was much admired. It was he whointroduced the Fontainebleau-Barbizon method of painting on this continent, that school of painting in which details are suppressed and the impression received by the eye interpreted. The allegorical decorations in the State Capitol at Albany were painted by him. He died in 1879 and was buried in Brattleboro, having earned for himself an honored place among the names of great American artists.

Sculptors. — Of her sculptors, Hiram Powers, born at Woodstock in 1805, is an especial pride to Vermont. While

still a boy he went to Statue of Ethan Allen at the United States Capitol, Washington.

Cincinnati, where he be

came acquainted with a German sculptor who taught him to model in plaster. Afterward he went to Italy to study his art, residing in


Florence till his death. In 1839 he produced his most famous piece in marble, the Greek Slave, which may now be seen in the Corcoran Art Gallery at Washington.

Larkin Goldsmith Mead, though not born in Vermont, moved from New Hampshire to Brattleboro when a small boy. There he was educated, and there he first gave evidence of his artistic genius by modeling in snow the figure of an angel. In 1857 he executed the colossal statue representing Agriculture, which surmounts the dome of the State House at Montpelier; and a few years later, the statue of Ethan Allen, which adorns the portico of the same building. Another statue of Ethan Allen, which has been placed by the State in the Hall of Statuary in the Capitol at Washing

Statue of Ethan Allen at the ton, is also the work of his

State House. hands.

Horace Wells.--To Horace Wells, a native Vermonter, then living in Hartford, Conn., belongs the discovery of


the use of anesthetics to produce insensibility to pain in dentistry. He used successfully nitrous oxide gas on several cases.

He communicated his discovery to several persons, among them Dr. W. T. G. Morton, a former partner of his.

Wells's discovery stimulated Morton to endeavor to find a better anesthetic than the gas used by Wells, and trying the vapor of sulphuric ether found it to be just what he was seeking. Against the remonstrance of Wells, Morton obtained a patent for anesthetics.

The dispute as to his discovery and the frequent experiments upon himself with chloroform, caused insanity; and Wells took his own life in the year 1848.



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Distinguished Guests. - In the year 1817 President Monroe, in his tour of the States, passed through Vermont. He was everywhere received with demonstrations of respect and honor.

On invitation of the Legislature of the State, Lafayette, who was visiting this country, came to Vermont in 1825, entering the State at Windsor, where he was joyfully met by the Governor and his staff and a large body of citizens. At Windsor, Woodstock, Royalton, Randolph, Montpelier, and Burlington he was met by crowds of people, who gave him most enthusiastic demonstrations of welcome. At Burlington he laid the corner-stone of the south building of the University of Vermont, which was then being built to replace the old University building, which had been destroyed by fire. Here also a reception was given in his honor by Governor Van Ness,

Learning that an old Revolutionary War friend, General Barton, had been in prison for debt for thirteen years at Danby, Lafayette paid the obligation; and the general was released. Imprisonment for debt was common at this time, but was abolished not many years later.

Changes in Political Parties. --About the year 1825 both political parties changed their names. The Republican party now called themselves Democrats, and have ever since borne that name. The Federalists took the name of Whigs and in 1856 Republicans, a name which the party still holds. Other parties in the meantime came into existence, all of which had their representatives in Vermont, but these were short-lived.

Lamoille County Formed; the Senate Established. The fourteenth and last of all the counties to be formed was

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Lamoille County. This was formed in 1836 from parts of the adjoining counties.

In 1836 the executive Council was abolished and a Senate established, consisting of thirty Senators. These were apportioned to the counties according to their population. Up to this time the legislative power had been vested wholly in the House of Representatives. Ever since Vermont has had two law-making bodies, the Senate and House of Representatives.

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