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Green Mountains, placing themselves under the protection of the Pocumtucks.

Mr. George Sheldon, the historian of Deerfield, in recent investigations, has discovered "Indian barns” (as they were called by the first settlers) in all three of the beforenamed places. These barns were excavations made in the earth (always on a watershed) and used by the Indians for the storing of provisions. He also found heaps of stones such as were used by the Indians in cooking food.

The manner in which such cooking was done was as follows: Placing the material to be cooked in a kettle, with a sufficient quantity of water, the Indians heated the stones

Sculptures at Bellows Falls. red hot, and then continued to throw them into the kettle until the food was cooked to their satisfaction.

The village of Squakheag was in existence as late as 1664 or 1665, when the inhabitants were almost annihilated by their old enemy, the Mohawks.

Indian Village at Newbury; Indian Sculptures. The Abenaki dwelt originally in Maine, New Hampshire, and perhaps Massachusetts; but later they seem to have spread

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over the country to the north. A portion of this tribe settled in the Coðs' country (Coös signifying the pines), on the upper waters of the Connecticut; and these went by the name of the Coosucks, a name which indicated that they dwelt on the river by the pines.

When the first settlers came to Newbury, the remains of an Indian fort were still visible; to this the children and squaws were accustomed to go for safety when the red men were on the war-path. Among other evidences of

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Indian occupation, were found a stone mortar and pestle, arrow-heads, and an old burying-ground which showed that the Indians were buried in a sitting posture.

The Cossucks dwelt here until the year 1725, when, becoming alarmed over the defeat of a large force of Indians in New Hampshire, they removed to Canada and became identified with the St. Francis Indians.

At the close of the French and Indian wars, a few families returned to Coös and remained there till they became extinct. Notable among those who returned were

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ribe Molly and Joe, for whom Molly's and Joe's ponds, in the

town of Cabot, were named. br

At Brattleboro and Bellows Falls were found Indian hat sculptures upon rocks. These were rude drawings of the

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have commemorated victories, as it was the custom of the

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savages to leave such records upon rocks and trees on their way home from successful campaigns. The number of heads may have indicated the number of scalps taken in

Residents tell us that traces of these sculptures may

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still be seen.

Village at Swanton.—As the Iroquois gradually retired to the west of Lake Champlain, the rich lands of the Missisquoi Valley began to be occupied by a portion of the Abenaki. Quite a flourishing Indian village was found at Swanton, when the French built their fort on Isle La Motte in 1666, and it is thought to have been begun as early as 1650.

All through this section interesting and valuable relics have been discovered, which indicate different ages of occupation. These consist of places of burial; implements of warfare, hunting, and fishing; vases, urns, mortars, and pestles. There was also a castle at Swanton, which we find represented upon some of the old French and English maps.

An urn was dug up at Colchester with a capacity of about four quarts; and one at Middlebury, of about twenty quarts. An urn similar to these was also found at Bolton; and at St. Albans Bay a pestle was dug up which had a well-defined bird's head upon it. A second time the soil of Bolton yielded up its archæological treasures, when, in August of the year 1903, an Indian jar remarkably well preserved was unearthed at Bolton Falls. This is ten inches in height, and will hold twelve quarts.

CHAPTER II

INDIAN CUSTOMS—INDIAN HOSTILITIES

Indian Life. It is difficult to realize that upon the land where we now live the dark-skinned savages once made their homes. Many of their houses were veritable tenement-houses, sixty or eighty feet long, and, like the long-house of the Iroquois, would accommodate sometimes twenty families each.

Here on Vermont soil roamed the matchless hunter, who could track game for miles through dense forests and

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over steep and jagged rocks, where to the untrained eye there was nothing to indicate that an animal had passed that way. Broken or bent blades of grass told him, not only that game had gone by, but even its kind. Here the red man fished, sometimes with his hook of bone, sometimes with a net constructed of the fibrous bark of the elmtree, and at other times with a long spear fitted with a triangular piece of flint for a head. Here he hunted and fought with bow and arrow, war-club and tomahawk-his

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