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Members of the Privy Council.
His Royal Highness Prince Frederick Augustus.
M. de Nostitz and Jaenkendorf, Minister of Conference,
Baron de Gutschmidt, Minister of Conference.
Baron de Werthern, Minister of Conference and Chancellor.
Baron de Manteuffel, Minister of Conference and President.
General de Zezschwitz, Actual Privy Counsellor and President.
M. de Carlowiz, Actual Privy Counsellor.

LEIPsIC LITERARY FAIR. Leipsic is the greatest centre of boukselling in Germany. The following statement of the number of new books offered at this literary fair, for 15 years, exhibits a surprising regularity of increase. Years. Works. Years. Works. Years.

Works 1814 2,529 | 1819 3,916 | 1824

4,511 1815 2,750 1820 3,958 1825

4,836 1816 3,197 1821 3,997 1826

4,074 1817 3,352 1822 4,283 | 1827

5,108 1818 3,871 1823 4,309 | 1828

5,654

HANOVER.

WILLIAM, King of Hanover, (William IV, King of Great Britain.)

GOVERNMENT. The King of Great Britain is King of Hanover; yet Great Britain and Hanover have no political incorporation with each other, but have different constitutions; and the succession to the throne in Hanover is limited to the male line. The power of the King is limited by the States, which consist of the nobility, the heads of the church, and the deputies of the towns.

The King's Ministry of State and Cabinet. His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, Governor General. Count de Munster, resident in Lond. as Min. Reporter (Rapporteur.) M. de Bremer, Min. of For. Affairs, Finance, and of the Post-Office,

M. de Meding, Minister of the Interior, Police, Mines, Commerce, and Manufactures.

M. de Oinpteda, Minister of War; of the Boundaries of the Kingdom, Roads, and Bridges.

Baron de Stralenheim, Minister of Ecclesiasticol Affairs, the Univer. sity of Gottingen, Public Instruction, the Administration of Convents, National Economy, and Fiefs.

M. de Schinidt Phiseldeck, Privy Coun. and Head of the Dep. of Just.

WURTEMBERG.

KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. WILLIAM, King of Wurtemberg, Duke of Swabia and Teek; b. Sept. 27, 1781 ; succeeded his father Frederick, Oct. 30, 1816; m. (I.) Jan. 24, 1816, Catharine, sister of the Emperor of Russia and widow of the Duke of Oldenburg, b. May 21, 1788, d. Jan. 9, 1819 :-m. (II.) April 15, 1820,

PAULINA, daughter of his uncle, Duke Alexander , b. Sept. 11, 1800 :Issue, by the first marriage :

1. Maria ; b. Oct. 30, 1816.-2. Sophia; b. June 17, 1818.-Issue by the 2d marriage :-3. Catharine ; b. Aug. 24, 1821.–4. CHARLES, Prince Royal; b. March 6, 1823 ;-5. Augustus; b. Oct. 4, 1826.

GOVERNMENT. The government is a constitutional monarchy. The Constitution which was formed in 1819, provides for a legislative Assembly of States, composed of two houses, one consisting of members chosen for life among the nobles, and the other of members elected by the people for the term of six years.

Privy Council. M. de Otto,

President of the Privy Council. Baron de Mauckler, Minister of Justice. Count de Beroldingen, Minister of Foreign Affairs. M. de Scmidtlin, Min. of the Home Dep. and of Eccles. Affairs. Count de Franquemont, Minister of War. Baron de Varnbuler, Minister of Finance.

BAVARIA.

KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. LOUIS, King of Bavaria ; b. Aug. 25, 1786, succeeded his father Macimilian Joseph, Oct. 13, 1825 ; m. Oct. 12, 1810, THERESA, daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, b. July 8, 1792:- Issue :1. MAXIMILIAN, Prince Royal ; 5. Adeline ; b. March 19, 1823. b. Nov. 28, 1811.

6. Hildegarde ; b. June 10, 1825. 2. Matilda ; b. Aug. 30, 1813. 7. Alexandrina; b. Aug. 26, 1826. 3. Otho; b. June 1, 1815.

8. Albert ; b. July 19, 1828. 4. Leopold ; b. March 14, 1821.

GOVERNMENT. The government has been, since 1818, a constitutional monarchy. The Parliament or Diet is composed of two chambers or houses, namely, a Senate or Chamber of Peers, and a House of Commons or Chamber of Deputies, consisting of representatives of the lower nobility, the Catholic and Protestant clergy, cities, towns, and agriculturists. The Ministers are responsible; though they have great power.

AUSTRIA.

EMPEROR AND IMPERIAL FAMILY. FRANCIS, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Lombardy, and Venice, and President of the German Confederation; b. at Florence, Feb. 12, 1768; succeeded his father Leopold II, as Emperor of Germany, July 7, 1792; declared himself Hereditary Emperor of Austria, Aug. 11, 1804, and resigned his title of Emperor of Germany, Aug. 6, 1806 ; m. (I.) Jan. 6, 1788, Elizabeth of Wurtemberg, who died 1790 ; m. (II.) Aug. 14, 1790, Maria Theresa, daughter of Ferdinand IV of Sicily, who died April 13, 1807: m. (III.) Jan. 9, 1808, Maria Louisa Beatrix, daughter of the Duke of Modena, who died April 7, 1816; m. (IV.) Nov. 10, 1816, CARO

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LINE Augusta, daughter of the king of Bavaria :- Issue by the 2d marriage :

1. Maria Louisa ; b. Dec. 12, 1791 ; m. 1810, to the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte : [issue; Francis Joseph Charles [Napoleon) Duke of Reichstadt, b. March 20, 1811]; created Duchess of Parma, May 30, 1814.

2. FERDINAND, Crown Prince; b. April 19, 1793.
3. Maria Carolina, Princess of Salerno ; b. March 1, 1798.

4. Carolina Ferdinanda; b. April 8, 1801; m. Oct. 7, 1819, to Prince Frederick Augustus of Saxony.

5. Francis Charles Joseph; b. Dec. 9, 1902; m: Nov. 4, 1824, Sophia, sister of the king of Bavaria. 6. Maria Anne Frances; b. June 8, 1804.

Princes of the Blood. 1. Archduke Charles, Palatine & Viceroy of Bohemia; b. March 9, 1771. 2. Archduke Joseph, Palatine and Lieut. of Hungary; b. March 9, 1776. 3. Archduke Anthony, G. M. of the Teutonic Order; b. Aug. 31,1779. 4. Archduke John, General of Cavalry; b. Jan 20, 1782. 5. Archduke Renier, Viceroy of Lombardy and Venice; b. Sept. 30, 1783. 6. Archduke Louis ; b. Dec. 13, 1784. 7. Archduke Rodolph ; Card. and Archb. of Olmutz; b. Jan. 8, 1788.

GOVERNMENT.
The government of the Austrian Empire is mainly an absolute monarchy,
and is noted for its arbitrary and illiberal policy in prohibiting political dis-
cussions, and suppressing liberal opinions. Yet' in some of the states the
power of the emperor is limited by constitutional provisions, as in Hun-
gary, where certain powers are possessed by the Diet, which is required to
be convoked at least once in three years.

MINISTERS OF STATE AND CONFERENCE.
Prince Clement de Metternich, Count Francis Kollowrat-Liebstein-
Count Francis Saurau,

ski, Count Henry Bellegarde,

Chevalier de Plenczig.
M. Anthony Martin, Director of the Cabinet.

Privy Chancery of the Household, Court, and State.
Prince de Metternich, Chancellor of the Household, Court, and State,
(Minister of Foreign Affairs); Counsellor of State.
Baron de Struiner, 13 Aulic Counsellors, und 5 Counsellors.

Chancery of the united Court.
Count de Saurau, High Chancellor and Minister of the Home Depart-
ment ; 3 Chancellors of the Court.

Count Anthony Mitrowsky, Baron de Geislern, Chevalier Stahl; 16 Aulic Counsellors.

Chancery of the Court of Hungary.
Adam Count Reviczky de Revisnye, Chancellor of Court ; John Baron
de Malonyai de Vicsay, Vice-Chancellor; 10 Aulic Counsellors.

Chancery of the Court of Transylvania.
Joseph Baron Miske de Magyar, President ; 4 Counsellors of Court.

Michael Count Nadasd, Minister of Finance.
Baron Ferdinand de Fechtig, President of the High Court of Justice.
Count de Sedlnitzky, President of the High-Police and Censorship.
Prince Xavier de Hohenzollern-Hechingen, President of the Council

of War.

SPAIN.

KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. FERDINAND VII., King of Spain and the Indies ; Most Catholic; b. Oct. 14. 1784 ; succeeded to the throne on the abdication of his father Charles IV., March 19, 1808; m. (I.) Sept. 29, 1816, Isabella Maria, Infanta of Portugal, b. May 19, 1797, d. Dec. 26, 1818: m. (II.) Maria Josephina, niece of the King of Saxony, d. May, 1829; m. (III.) Dec. 4, 1829, MARIA CHRISTINA, daughter of the King of the Two Sicilies :Issue ; a daughter, b. 1830.

Princes of the Blood. Don Charles Isidore, Infant, brother of the King; b. March 29, 1788; m. Sept. 29, 1816, Maria Frances, Infant of Portugal :-Issue ; Charles Louis, b. Jan. 31, 1818; John Charles, b. May 15, 1822; Ferdinand, b. Oct. 13, 1824. Don Francis de Paula, Infant; b. March 10, 1794; m. June 12, 1819, Louisa Charlotte, daughter of the King of the Two Sicilies :—Issue; Isabella, b. May 18, 1821; Francis, b. May 13, 1822; Henry, b. April 17, 1823; Louisa, b. June 12, 1824; Edward, b. April 4, 1826; Josephine, b. May 25, 1827; Maria, b. Nov. 16, 1828.

GOVERNMENT. The government still remains an absolute, hereditary monarchy, though several unsuccessful attempts have been made to establish a constitutional government. The succession was limited to the male line till April 8, 1830, when, by a royal ordinance, females were rendered capable of succeeding to the throne.

Council of Ministers. M. Salmon, Minister of Foreign Affairs (ad interim). Don Francisco Tadeo de Calomarde, Minister of Grace and Justice. Marquis de Zambrano, Minister of War. Don Louis Maria de Salazar, Minister of Marine. Don Louis Lopez de Ballesteros, Minister of Finance.

PORTUGAL.

KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. MIGUEL, King of Portugal and the Algarves ; 2d son of John VI. of Portugal; b. Oct. 26, 1802; affianced at Vienna, Oct. 29, 18:26, by proxy to his niece Maria de Gloria, who was declared Queen of Portugal; took the oath of Feb. 26,1828, as Regent of Portugal ; was proclaimed King, by the Cortes, June 26, 1828, and formally assumed the title of King of Pore. tugal and the Algarves, July 4, 1828.

(MARIA DE GLORIA, eldest daughter of Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, eldest son of John VI. of Portugal; b. April 14, 1819; declared Queen of Portugal in consequence of the abdication of her father, May 2, 1826. Pedro having become Emperor of Brazil, under the conditions of the Con. stitution of that country, by an act of May 2, 1826, abdicated the throne of Portugal in favor of his daughter, promulgated a Constitution for the kingdom with a Cortes, and appointed his brother Don Miguel regent, during the minority of his daughter. Miguel, after having sworn to the Constitution, renounced it, assumed absolute sovereignty in his own right, and is now de facto King of Portugal.]

SARDINIA. CHARLES FELIX, King of Sardinia, Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, and Genoa; b. April 6, 1765; succeeded to the throne on the abdication of his brother, Victor Emanuel, March 13, 1821 ; m. March 7, 1807, MARIA CHRISTINA, daughter of Ferdinand IV., of the Two Sicilies, b. Jan. 17, 1779.

STATES OF THE CHURCH. The government is an elective, absolute monarchy; the sovereign is the Pope who is chosen for life, by the college of Cardinals from their own body.

POPE PIUS VIII, (Francis Xav. Častiglioni); b. at Cingoli, Nov. 20, 1761; created Cardinal March 8, 1816; elected Pope March 31, 1829.

Cardinals. The Cardinals have the rank of princes, are next in dignity to the Pope, and together with him, they form the sacred college. Their number which was fixed, in 1526, at 70, is not generally full. They are divided into three ranks, of which the numbers, in 1829, were 4 CardinalBishops, 43 Cardinal-Priests, and 11 Cardinal-Deacons ;—total 58.

THE TWO SICILIES.

KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. FRANCIS, King of the Two Sicilies ; b. April 19, 1777; succeeded his father Ferdinand IV, Jan, 4, 1825; m. (I.) April 24, 1797, Maria Clementina, sister of the Emperor of Austria :-(Issue; Maria Caroline, b. Nov. 5, 1788, m. Feb. 14, to the Duke of Berry) :m. (II.) Oct. 6, 1802, MARIA ISABELLA, sister of the King of Spain, b. Nov. 5, 1798 :

Issue:

2. Louisa Charlotte; b. Oct. 24, 1804 ; m. 7. Antoinette ; b. Dec. 19, 1814.

June 12, 1819, Don Francis of Spain. 8. Antonio, Count of Lecce; b. Sept. 23, 1816. 3. Maria Christina, Q.Spain ; b. Ap. 27, 1806. 9. Amelia; b. Feb. 25, 1818. 4. FERDINAND, Duke of Calabria ; b. Jan. 12, 10. Caroline ; b. Feb. 28, 1818. 1810.

11. Theresa; b. March 14, 1822. 5. Charles, Prince of Capua ; b. Dec. 10, 1811. 12. Louis, Count of Aquila; b. July 19, 1824. 6. Leopold, C. of Syracuse ; b. May 22, 1813. 13. Francis, C.of Trapani; b. Aug. 13, 1827.

TURKEY.

SULTAN AND HIS FAMILY. MAHMOUD II, Grand Seignior and Sultan of the Ottoman Empire ; b. July 20, 1785; called to the throne on the deposition of his uncle Selim III, July 28, 1808 :- Issue : - Abdul Medschid ; b. April 20, 1823.-Abdulhamid ; b. Feb. 18, 1827;—and several daughters.

GOVERNMENT. The government is an absolute monarchy; the sovereign, who is styled Sultan, Grand Seignior, or Emperor, is the sole fountain of honor and office, and is the absolute master of the property and lives of his subjects. His cabinet council is styled the Divan; his court, the Porte or Sublime Porte.

Reschid Mehemed Pacha, Grand Vizier, (Prime Minister.)
Jafendschi Sade-Effendi, Mufti, Head of the Religion of the State.
Papudschi-Ahmed-Pacha, Capudan-Pacha, or Grand Admiral.
Mohamed-Seid-Pertew-Effendi, Reis-Effendi, Min. of Foreign Affairs.
Ali-Nedschib-Bei, Kraja-Bei, Minister of the Interior.
Hassan-Jasin-Effendi, "Nischandschi-Baschi, Keeper of the Seals.
Mehmed-Sadik-Effendi, Defterdar, Minister of Finance.
Chosrew-Mehmed-Pacha, Seraskier, Generalisimo.
Elhadsch-Ali-Ber, Tersana-Emini, Minister of the Marine.

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