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25. The Chamber of Peers is to be presided over by the Chancellor of France, and in his absence, by a Peer named by the King.
26. The Princes of the Blood are Peers by right of birth. They take their seats next to the President.
27. The sittings of the Chamber of Peers are to be public, and also those of the Chamber of Deputies.
28. The Chamber of Peers takes cognizance of high treason, and of attempts against the safety of the State, which shall be defined by the law.
29. No Peer can be arrested but by the authority of the Chamber, or judged but by it in a criminal matter.
Of the Chamber of Deputies. Art. 30. The Chamber of Deputies shall be composed of deputies elected by the electoral colleges, of which the organization is to be determined by law.
31. The deputies are to be elected for the space of five years.
32. No deputy can be admitted into the Chamber till he has attained the age of thirty years, and if he does not possess the other conditions prescribed by the law.
33. If, however, there should not be in the department fifty persons of the age specified, paying the amount of taxes fixed by law, their number shall be completed from the persons who pay the greatest amount of taxes under the amount fixed by law, who may be elected concurrently with the first.
34. No person can be an elector if he is under 25 years of age ; and if he does not possess all the other conditions determined by the law.
35. The presidents of the electoral colleges are to be named by the electors.
36. One half at least of the deputies shall be chosen from those who have their political residence in the departinent.
37. The President of the Chamber of Deputies is to be elected by the Chamber itself, at the opening of each session.
38. The sittings of the Chamber are to be public ; but the request of five members shall be sufficient to enable the Chamber to resolve itself into a secret committee.
39. The Chamber is to be divided into committees, to discuss laws which may be proposed.
40. No tax can be established or collected, if it has not been consented to by the two Chambers, and sanctioned by the King,
41. The land and house tax can be voted for one year only. The indirect taxes may be voted for several years.
42. The King is to convoke every year the two Chambers, and he has the right to prorogue them, and to dissolve that of the Deputies; but in this case he must convoke a new one within the period of three months.
43. No bodily restraint can be exercised against a member of the Chamber during the session, nor for six weeks which precede or follow the session.
44. No member of the Chamber can be, during the session, prosecuted or arrested in a criminal matter, unless taken in the act, till after the Chamber has permitted his arrest.
45. Every petition to either of the Chambers must be made in writing. The law interdicts its being carried in person to the bar.
Of the Ministers. Art. 46. The ministers may be members of the Chamber of Peers or the Chamber of Deputies. They have, moreover, their entrance into either Chamber, and are entitled to be heard, when they demand it.
47. The Chamber of Deputies has the right of impeaching the ministers, or of bringing them before the Chamber of Peers, which alone can judge them.
Art. 48. All justice emanates from the King; it is administered in his name, by the judges, whom he names, and whom he institutes.
49. The judges named by the King are not removable.
50. The ordinary courts and tribunals existing are to be maintained, and there is to be no change but by virtue of a law.
51. The existing institution of the tribunal of commerce is preserved.
52. The office of justice of the peace is equally preserved. The justices of the peace, though named by the King, are not unremovable.
53. No one can be deprived of his natural judges.
54. Consequently, there can be no extraordinary commissions or tribunals, under any title or denomination whatever.
55. The debates shall be public in criminal matters, except when that publicity may be dangerous to public order and manners; and in thal case the tribunal is to declare so by a distinct judgment.
56. The institution of juries is preserved; the changes which a longer experience may render necessary can be effected only by a distinct law.
57. The punishment of the confiscation of goods is abolished, and cannot be reëstablished.
58. The King has the right to pardon and to commute punishments.
59. The civil code, and the laws actually existing, that are not contrary to the present Charter, shall remain in full force until they shall be legally abrogated.
Particular Rights guarantied by the State. Art. 60. The military in actual service, officers and soldiers retired, widows, officers and soldiers pensioned, are to preserve their rank, honors, and pensions.
61. The public debt is guarantied ; every sort of engagement made by the State with its creditors, is inviolable.
62. The ancient nobility resume their titles; the new preserve theirs; the King creates nobles at his pleasure ; but he only grants to them rank and honors, without exemption from the burdens and duties imposed on them as members of society.
63. The Legion of Honor is maintained. The King is to determine the regulations and the decorations.
64. The Colonies are to be governed by particular laws and regulations,
65. The King and his successors shall swear, at their accession, in presence of the two Chambers, to observe faithfully the present Constitutional Charter.
66. The present Charter, and all the rights it consecrates, remain entrusted to the patriotism and courage of the National Guard and all the citizens.
67. France resumes her colors; in future no other cockade shall be worn than the tri-colored.
Supplementary Provisions. The Chamber of Deputies declares that it is necessary to provide successively by separate laws, and that with the shortest possible delay;
1. For the extension of the trial by jury to misdemeanors of the press; 2. For the responsibility of ministers and the other agents of government; 3. For the reëlection of deputies appointed to public offices with salaries; 4. For the annual voting of the army estimates ;
5. For the oganization of the National Guards, their officers to be chosen by themselves;
6. For regulations securing, in a legal manner, the condition of officers both military and naval, of all ranks;
7. For departmental and municipal institutions founded on an elective system ;
8. For public instruction and liberty in teaching ;
9. For the abolition of the double vote, and for fixing the qualifications of electors and deputies.
Special Provisions. All the creations of Peers, during the reign of Charles X., are declared mull and void.
Article 23 of the Charter (the 27th of the old Charter) shall undergo a fresh examination during the Session of 1831.
Upon condition of accepting these provisions and propositions, the Chamber of Deputies declares, that the universal and pressing interest of the French People calls to the throne his Royal Highness Louis Philip, Duke of -Orleans, Lieutenant-General of the kiugdom, and his descendants for ever from male to male, in the order of primogeniture, and to the perpetual exclusion of the female branches and their descendants.
In consequence his Royal Highness Louis Philip, Lieutenant-General of the kingdom, shall be invited to accept and make oath to the above clauses and engagements—the observance of the Constitutional Charter, and the modifications indicated—and after having made oath before the assembled Chambers, to assume the title of the King of the French.
Debated at the Palace of the Chamber of Deputies, 7th August, 1830.
Presidents and Secretaries.- Lufitte, Vice-President. Jaqueminot, Pavée de Vendeurre, Cunin Griduine, Jurs.
Examined with the original by us President and Secretaries—Lufitte, Jars, Jacqueminot, Pavée de Vendeuvre, Deputy de l'Aube. Cunin Griduine Deputy des Ardennes.
Ministry of Louis Philip. Count de Mole, Min. For. Affairs. | M. de Guizot, Min. of the Interior. General Gerard, Minister of War. Gen. Sebastiani, Min. of Marine. Baron Louis, Min. of Finance. M. Dupont d'Eure, Keeper of the Seals Duke de Broglio,
5 Min. Pub, Inst. and and Minister of Justice.
| Pres. Coun. State. M. Casimir-Perrier, & M. J. Lafitte, Ministers of State. Benj. Constant,
S President of the Committee of Legislation and the Ad
ministration of Justice in the Council of State. Baron Pasquier, President of the House of Peers. M. Lafitte,
President of the House of Deputies. The number of Deputies is 430. The number of Peers, before the recent revolution, was 367, of which 93, who were created by Charles X, have been disqualified from taking their seats under the new government, by the decision of the Chamber of Deputies.
The old Charter permitted only those Frenchmen (30 years old) who paid annually 300 francs in direct taxes, to be electors, and those only to be eligible, who paid 1,000 francs. Of nearly 32,000,000 of people there were supposed to be only about 80,000 electors; and only 5,000 or 6,000 persons eligible. The new Charter leaves these qualifications to be settled by law.
KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. FREDERICK WILLIAM III., King of Prussia, Margrave of Branden burg, and Sovereign Duke of Silesia ; b. Aug. 3, 1770 ; succeeded his father Frederick William II. Nov. 16, 1797 ; m. Dec. 14, 1793, Louisa Augusta, Princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who died July 13, 1810. [m. (II.) (by private marriage, mariage morganatique) Nov. 9, 1824, to Augustá, Princess of Liegnitz:]—Issue by the first marriage :
1. FREDERICK WILLIAM, Prince Royal; b. Oct. 15, 1795 ; m. Nov 29, 1823, Elizabeth Louisa, sister of the king of Bavaria, b. Nov. 13, 1801.
2. William Louis ; b. March 22, 1797 ; m. June 11, 1829. Augusta, daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar.
3. Charlotte, Empress of Russia, b. July 13, 1798.
4. Charles ; b. June 29, 1801; m. May 26, 1827, Maria, daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar.
5. Alexandrina ; b. Feb. 23, 1803; m. Sept. 24, 1820, to Prince Frederick of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
6. Louisa ; b. Feb. 1, 1808; m. May 21, 1825, to Frederick of Orange. 7. Albert ; b. Oct. 4, 1809.
GOVERMENT. The government of Prussia is an absolute monarchy, and is perhaps as military in its character as any other in Europe. The king is assisted by a ministry or cabinet, on a similar footing to that of England; but there is no representative assembly, although the royal decree of May 22, 1815, promised the nation a representative constitution. The king, some years since, however, established Provincial Estates, which may be consulted in regard to taxation, and discuss what is laid before them by the authority of the sovereign ; but they have not the power of even making propositions to the government. The religion of the royal family is the Calvinist or Evangelical ; but there is no religion of state, and all denominations are equally tolerated. In 1817, the Lutherans and Calvinists of Prussia and some other German states formed a union under the name of Evangelical Christians.
The Ministry of State. The Ministry of State is composed of his Royal Highness the Prince Royal, the Actual Privy Counsellor of State, the General of the Infantry, Count de Lottum, and the chiefs of particular ministries or departments. The President of the Council of State, Duke Charles of Mecklenburg, has the right to assist at the conferences of the Ministry of State when he pleases.
Particular Ministries or Departments. Baron d’Altenstein, Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs, Public Instruction, and Health, and Privy Minister of State.
Baron de Schuckmann, Min. of Interior, and Privy Minister of State.
Prince de Sayn-Wittgenstein, Chief Minister of the King's Household, Privy Counsellor of State, and Grand Chamberlain.
Count de Bernstorff, Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Minister of State and of the Cabinet.
M. de Hake, Minister of War and of State ; General of the Infantry. Count Dankelmann, Minister of Justice, and Privy Minister of State. M. de Motz, Minister of Finance, and Minister of State.
EDUCATION. The Prussian government is distinguished for patronizing learning; and the kingdom is one of the best educated in Europe. The following particulars respecting primary education are taken from the official statement for the year 1825. Number of Elementary Schools,
20,887 Number of Schools of a higher order,
Total 21,623 Boys in the Elementary Schools,
822,077 Girls, do.
755,922 Boys in the Schools of a higher order,
49,169 Girls, do.
Jurispru Idents in
dence and MediChurch.Church. 1820–Winter of 1820–21 892 264
667 3,382 1825-Winter of 1825–26 1,674
5,452 1826-Winter of 1826-27 1,796
1,651 693 5,656 1827-Winter of 1826–28 1,951 888
KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. ANTHONY, King of Saxony ; b. Dec. 27, 1755; succeeded his brother Frederick Augustus, May 12, 1827; m. MARIA THERESA, sister of the Emperor of Austria.
Maria Amelia, sister of the King; b. Sept. 26, 1757. MAXIMILIAN, brother of the King; b. April 13, 1759; m. (I.) Caroline, of Parma, March 1, 1804; m. (II.) Maria Louisa, sister of the Duke of Lucca, Nov. 7, 1825:—Issue by the 1st marriage ;— Amelia, b. Aug. 10, 1794; Maria, April 27, 1796; FREDERICK AUGUSTUS, lately appointed Joint Regent, b. May 18, 1797, m. 1819, Caroline of Austria :-Anne, b. Nov. 15, 1799 ; John, b. Dec. 12, 1801, m. 1822, Amelia of Bavaria.
GOVERNMENT. The government is a limited monarchy. There is an Assembly of Estates composed of three orders, clergy, nobility or gentry, and deputies from the towns. This Assembly regulates the taxes and imposts, and deliberates on important laws. The inhabitants are chiefly Protestants; the number of Catholics being computed at only 48,000, though the religion of the reigning family has been Catholic since the year 1697.
SUPREME AUTHORITIES OF STATE.
Privy Cabinet. Count Detlev d’Einsiedel, Minister of the Cabinet and. Secretary of State. [Recently dismissed.]
M. de Minckwitz, (Actual Confidential Counsellor, and Major General), Director of the Department of Foreign Affairs.