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the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the three principal Secretaries of State, the First Lord of the Admiralty, and commonly some others of the princi. pal officers of government. The First Lord of the Treasurer is considered as the Premier or Prime Minister of the country. It has sometimes happened that the offices of the First Lord of the Treasury and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, have been held by the same person. The King removes his confidential servants, or “the administration,” as it is called, at his pleasure.
The Lord Chancellor
Keeps the Great Seal, not to judge according to the common law, as other courts do, but to dispense with such parts as seein, in some cases, to oppress the subject; and to judge according to equity, conscience, and
He presides in the High Court of Chancery, which is the most 'important of all the King's civil courts of justice. He takes precedency of every temporal lord, and is by office Speaker of the House of Lords. To him belongs the appointment of justices of the peace throughout the kingdom; and he is patron of all the ecclesiastical benefices under the yearly value of £20 in the King's Books. He is also the general guardian of all infants, idiots, and lunatics. The Court of Chancery in which the Lord Chancellor alone sits and determines without a jury, judges causes in equity, in order to moderate the rigor of the law, to defend the helpless from oppression, and especially to extend relief in cases of accident, fraud, and breach of trust. From this court an appeal lies immediately to the House of Peers, which is the Supreme Court of Judicature in the kingdom.
The Lord Privy Seal
Is so called from his having the King's Privy Seal in his custody, which he must not put to any grant without warrant under the King's signet. This seal is used to all charters, grants, and pardons, signed by the King, before they come to the Great Seal.
The Lord President of the Council
Holds his post by letters patent durante beneplacito. By stat. 21, Henry VIII., he is to attend the King's person ; to manage the debates in Council; to propose matters from the King at the Council; and to report to the King the resolutions thereupon.
Formerly there was a Lord High Treasurer ; but for upwards of a century the management of the Treasury has been put in commission, the commissioners being the First Lord of the Treasury, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, (to whom is entrusted, in an especial manner, the revenue and expenditure of the nation, and who often takes the lead on the ministerial side in the House of Comme :), and three other Commissioners. The First Lord of the Treasury has the appointment of all officers employed in collecting the revenues of the Crown; the nomination of all escheators; the disposal of all places and ways relating to the revenue; and power to let leases of the crown lands.
The Three Secretaries of State.. The Secretary of State for the Home Department has the management of, and control over, the internal affairs of the kingdom ; issues all directions and commands to Lord Lieutenants, Sheriffs, and other magistrates ; and makes out and executes all grants, pardons, and regulations in civil matters of every kind. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has the management of all correspondence and transactions with foreign nations. The Secretary of State for the Colonial Department has the management of all the affairs relating to the colonies of Great Britain.
The Admiralty. The superintendence of the navy is seldom now entrusted to a Lord High Admiral; but a board of admiralty is appointed, consisting of a first Lord and several subordinate members. The duty of the admiralty is to consider and determine on all matters relating to the navy; to give directions for all services that are to be performed therein, both in its civil and naval branches, and generally to superintend the naval and marine establishment.
The Lord Chamberlain.
The office of the Lord Chamberlain is to take care of all officers and servants (excepting those belonging to the King's bedchamber, who are under the groom of the Stole), belonging to the King's chambers, who are sworn in their places by him. He has the oversight of the officers of the ward. robe at all the King's houses; of tents, revels, music, comedians, huntsmen, messengers, and artisans; also of the King's chaplains, heralds, physicians, apothecaries, &c. It is his duty to inspect into the charges of corronations, marriages, public entries, cavalcades, and funerals ; and into all furniture for and in the parliament house, and rooms of addresses to the King.
The Lord Steward.
The estate of the King's household is entirely committed to the Lord Steward, to be ruled and governed by his discretion; and all his commands in court are to be obeyed. His authority reaches over all the officers and servants of the King's house, except those of the King's chamber, stable, and chapel. Under the Lord Steward, in the counting-house, are the treas. urer of the household, comptroller, cofferer, master of household, clerks of the green cloth, &c. It is called the counting-house, because all the accounts and expenses of the King's household are daily taken and kept in it.
The Master of the Horse Has the charge of all the King's stables and horses; also power over equeries, pages, footmen, grooms, farriers, smiths, saddlers, and all trades relating in any way to the stables. He has the privilege of applying to his own use one coachman, four footmen, and sis grooms, in the King's pay, and wearing the King's livery. In any solemn cavalcade he rides next behind the King.
The Parliament of Great Britain is the great council of the nation, constituting the legislature, which is summoned by the King's authority, to consult on public affairs, and enact and repeal laws. It consists of Lords Spiritual and Temporal, called the Peers or Upper House; and Knights, Citizens, or Burgesses, who are comprehended under the name of the Commons or Lower House.
THE HOUSE OF LORDS OR PEERS.
The Lord High Chancellor Lyndhurst, Speaker. The House of Lords is composed of all the five orders of nobility of England, dukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts, and barons, who have attained the age of 21 years, and labor under no disqualification ; of 16 representative peers from Scotland; 28 representative peers from Ireland ; 2 English archbishops and 24 bishops; and 4 representative Irish bishops :—the number of each, in 1830, being as follows: Dukes (4 royal Dukes), 23 | Representative Peers of Scotland, 16 Marquesses,
18 Representative Peers of Ireland, 28 Earls,
104 | English Archbishops and Bishops, 26 Viscounts,
22 | Irish Representative Bishops, Barons,
Total of the House of Peers, 401
A List of the House of Lords, with the Date of the Creation of the
Family, and the Birth of the present Peer.—The Titles here given are those by which the Noblemen sit in the House of Peers.
ated. Royal Dukes.
C.S. Germaine 1767
1766 Northumberland Hugh Percy, Cumberland Ernest Augustus
1814 Wellington Sussex Frederick Augustus
Arthur Wellesley 1769 1773
1822 Buckingham R. G. C. Templo (1776 Cambridge
Adolphus Froderick 1774
1551 Winchester C. I. Paulet 11774
1784 Lansdowne Henry Petty 1780 Title. Name. 1786 Stafford
G. G. L. Gower 1758 ated.
1787 Townshend G. Townshend 1778 1383 Norfolk
IB. E. Howard 1765 1789 Salisbury J. B. W. G. Cecil 17911 1546 Somerset E. A. Seymour
1775 1789 Bath
1765 1675 Richmond Charles Lenox 1791 1790 Abercorn
J. J. Hamilton 1675 Grafton G. H. Fitzroy
17601793 Hertford F.C. S.C. Conway 1777 1682 Beanfort H.C. Somerset 1766 1796 Bute
1793 1683 St. Albans W. de V. Beauclerk 1801 1801 Exeter
Brownlow Cecil 1694 Leeds G. W. F. Osborne 1775 1812 No ampton
S.J. A. Compton 1694 Bedford John Russell 1766 1812 Camden.
J.J. Pratt 1694 Devonshire W. S. Cavendish 1790 1815 Anglosey H, W. Paget
1768 1702 Marlborough
G. S. Churchill 1766 1815 Cholmondeley G. J. Cholmondeley 1792 1703Rutland John H. Manners 1778 1816 Hastings
G. A. F. Hastings 171 Brandon
Alex. Hamilton 1767 1821 Aylesbury C. B. B. Bruce 1773 1716 Portland W.H.C.S. Bentinck 1768 1826 Bristol
F. W. Hervey 1719 Manchester IWm. Montague
1771|1827 Cleveland Wm. H. Vano 1766
ated. 1821 Hutchinson J.H. Hutchinson (E. 1786 Carleton Henry Boyle (E. of Donoughmore, Ire.) 1757
Shannon, Ireland) 1771 1823 Beresford W. c. Beresford
1786 Suffield Edward Harbord 1781 11823 Clancarty R. Le P. Trench (E. 1786 Dorchester Guy Carleton 1711
of Clancarty, Ire.) 1788 Kenyon George Kenyon 1776 1826 Combermere 8. Cotton
1788 Braybrooko Richard Griffin 1783 1827 Goderich F. J. Robinson 1782 1790 Fisherwick G. A.Chichester (M.
of Donegal, Irel'd) 1769 Barons.
A. Douglas 1773 1790 Gage
H.H. Gage (V.Gage, 1269 Le Despencer Th. Stapleton 11766
1791 1269 De Clifford E. S. Clifford 1767 1790 Grenville W. W. Grenvillo 1759 1296 Audley G.J. T. Tuchet 1783|1792 Thurlow E. T. H. Thurlow 1781 1298 Clinton R. C. S. J. Trefusis 1787|1793 Auckland George Eden
1784 1307 Dacre Thomas Brand 1774 1794 Lyttelton
W.X. Lyttelton 1782 1314 Willoughby de
1794 Mendip. H. W. A. Ellis (V Eresby P.R. D. Burrell 1782
Clifden, Ireland) 1761 1448 Stourton Wm. Stourton 1776 1794 Selsey
H. J. Peachey 1787 1492 Willo'by de B. Henry Verney, 1773 1794 Dundas Laurence Dundas 1766 1553 Howard K. A. Howard 1767 1794 Yarborough C. A. Pelham 1781 1558 Saint John St. And. Saint John 18111796 Stuart Francis Stuart (E. 1597 Howard de W. C. A. Ellis
of Moray, Scot... 1771 1603 Petre
W. H. F. Petre 1793 1796 Stewart George Stewart (E. 1603 Say and Sele G.W.E.T. Fiennes 1769
of Galloway, Scot.) 1768 1605 Arundel Everard Arundel 1786|1796 Saltersford J.G. Stopford (E. of 1608 Clifton J.Bligh(E.Darn., I.) 1767
Courtown, Irel'd) 1765 1615 Dormer J. T. Dormer
1796 Dawnay J.C, B. Dawnay (V. 1616 Teynham H.F. R. Curzon 1768
Downe, Ireland), 1754 1640 Stafford G.W.S.Jernyngham 1771 1796 Brodrick George Brodrick (V. 1643 Byron G. A. Byron 1689
Middleton, Ireld) 1755 1672 Clifford Charles Clifford 17591796 Calthorpe
G. G. Calthorpe 1787 1703 Gower
G. G. L. Gower 1786|1796 De Dustanville Francis Basset 1757 1711 Boyle Edmund Boyle (E.of
1756 Cork & Orrery, i.) 1767|1797 Wellesley Rich. C. Wellesley 1711 Hay T.R. H. Drummond
(M. of Well’y (re.) 1760 (E.of Kinnoul, Sc.) 1785 1797 Carrington
Robert Smith 1752 1712 Middleton H. Willoughby 17611797 Bayning
H. W. Powlett 1797 1725 King Peter King 1776 1797 Bolton
W. 0. Powlett 1782 1728 Monson J. G. Monson 18091797 Wodehouse John Wodehouse 1741 1741 Mountford H. Bromley
1773 1797 Northwick John Rushout 1770 1749 Ponsonby F. Ponsonby (E. of
T. A. Powis 1801 Besborough, Ireld) 1758 1797 Ribblesdale Thomas Lister 1790 1760 Sondes
L. R. Watson 1792 1799 Fitzgibbon John Fitzgibbon (E. 1761 Grantham T. P. Weddell 1781
of Clare, Ireland) 1792 1761 Scarsdale Nathaniel Curzon 1751|1801 Moore
Charls Moore (M. 1761 Boston George Irhy 1777
of Drogheda, Irel.) 1770 1762 Holland H, R. N. Fox 1773||1801 Loftus
John Loftus (M. of 1762 Lovel and Hol- John Perceval (E. of
Ely, Ireland) 1770 land
Egmont, Ireland) 1767 1801 Carysfort John Proby (E. of 1762 Vernon G. C. V. Vernon 1803
Carysfort, Ireland) 1763 Ducie T. R. Moreton 1776|1801 Alvanley
William Arden 1789 1766 Sandridge and G.W. Campbell (D. 1801 Abercromby G. Abercromby 1770 Hamilton of Argyll, Scot.)
1768||1801 t. Heleng A. Fitzherbert 1753 1776 Hawke
E. W. Hawke 1799 1802 Redesdale J. T. Mitford 1776 Foley Thomas Foley 1780|1802 Rivers
W. H. P. Rivers 1777 1780 Dynevor G. T. Rice
1790 (1765 1802 Ellenborough Edward Law 1780 Walsingham G. de Grey 1776 1802 Arden
C. G. Perceval 1756 1780 Bagot Wm. Bagot
17731802 Sheffield G.A.F.C.B. Holroyd 1780 Southampton Charles Fitzroy 1804
(E. of Sheffield, 1.) 1802 1782 Grantley Fletcher Norton 1796 1805 Barham
Charles Noel Noel 1781 1782 Rodney George Rodney 1782 1806 Erskine D, M. Erskine 1784 Carteret George Thynne 1770 1806 Mounteagle H. P. Browne (M. of 1784 Berwick Thomas N. Hill 1770
Sligo, Ireland) 1788) 1784 Sherborne | Jobn Dutton 1779 1806 Ardrossan A. Montgomerio (E. 1786 Montagu H. J. M. Scot 1776
of Eglintone, Sc.) 1912 1786 Tyrone
H. de la P. Beresford 1806 Lauderdale J. Maitland (E. of
Lauderdale, Scot.) 1759