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Chancellors in Equity.
Henry W. Dessausure, appointed 1808
1820 Henry Bailey, Reporter.
Judges of the General Sessions and Common Pleas. Elihu H. Bay,
appointed 1791 Robert Gautt,
1815 John S. Richardson, do.
1818 Daniel E. Huger,
1819 J. B. O'Neal,
1828 Josiah J. Evans,
2,572 3,500 3,500 2,500 2,500 2,500
Place. Capital. Bank of the State of South Carolina, with
branches at Columbia, Georgetown, and Charleston, $1,156,833
do. 1,000,000 Union Bank
do. 1,000,000 State Bank
800,000 Bank of South Carolina
675,000 *** The Bank of the United States has an office of Discount and Deposit at Charleston.
The principal literary institutions of this state are the College of South Carolina, at Columbia, and Charleston College, in Charleston. The Col. lege of South Carolina has been built up and supported by the state legis. lature ; and the sum of nearly $200,000 has been expended upon the buildings, library, philosophical apparatus, and occasional repairs. In addition to this, the legislature inakes an annual appropriation of about $15,000 to defray the expenses of the institution; and it also supports two beneficiaries at the college, at the annual expense of $260 each,
The legislature makes an annual appropriation of nearly $40,000 for the support of free schools. The Commissioners of Free Schools, at the session of the legislature, in 1823, reported that 840 schools were establisned throughout the state, in which 9,036 scholars were instructed, at the expense of $39, 716. The annual appropriation, in 1829, was $37,200.
The first English settlement of Georgia was formed at Savannah, in 1733, by general James Edw. Oglethorpe, together with 160 persons. Of all the Thirteen States which belonged to the Union at the time of the Decla. ration of Independence, this was the last settled.
Under the Crown of Great Britain. James Edw. Oglethorpe, Gov. 1732 | Henry Ellis, Governor 1757 William Stephens, (Act g Gov.) 1743 James Wright, do. 1760 Henry Parker, do. 1751 James Habersham, (Ac'g Gov.) 1771 John Reynolds,
During the Revolution. William Cawin, Pres. Council, 1775 | Button Gwinnett, Pres. Coun. 1777 Archibald Bullock, do. 1776
Under the Constitution. John A. Treuilen, elected 1777 | George Matthews, elected 1793 John Houston, do. 1778 Jared Irwin,
do. 1796 John Werriatt, Acting Gov. 1778 James Jackson,
1798 George Walton, elected 1779 David Emanuel, Acting Gov. 1801 Richard Howley,
do. 1780 Josiah Tatnall, elected 1801 Stephen Heard, do. 1781 John Milledge,
do. 1802 Nathan Brownson, do. 1781 Jared Irwin,
do. 1806 John Martin,
do. 1782 David B. Mitchell, do. 1809 Lyman Hall, do. 1783 Peter Early,
do. 1813 John Houston,
do. 1784 | David B. Mitchell, do. 1815 Samuel Elbert, do. 1785 Williain Rabun,
do. 1817 Edward Telfair, do. 1786 Matthew Talbot, Acting Gov. 1819 George Matthews, do. 1787 John Clarke,
elected 1819 George Handley, do. 1788 | George M. Troup, do. 1823 George Walton, do. 1789 John Forsyth,
do. 1827 Edward Telfair, do. 1790 | George R. Gilmer, do.
OUTLINES OF THE CONSTITUTION.
The first Constitution of Georgia was formed in 1777 ; a second, in 1785; and a third, the one now in operation, in 1798.
The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, which together are styled The General Assembly.
The members of both Houses are chosen annually on the first Monday in October. One senator is elected for each county, and the number of
representatives is in proportion to population, including three fifths of all the people of color; but each county is entitled to at least one, and no one to more than four, members.
The executive power is vested in a Governor, who was formerly elected by the General Assembly; but he is now (and ever since 1824) elected by the people on the first Monday in October; and he holds the office for
The General Assembly meets (at Milledgeville) on the first Monday in November; unless convened at another time by the Governor.
The Constitution grants the right of suffrage to all “ citizens and inhabitants, who have attained the age of 21 years, and have paid all the taxes which may have been required of them, and which they may have had opportunity of paying, agreeably to law, for the year preceding the election, and shall have resided six months within the county.”
The judicial power is vested in a Superior Court and in such inferior jurisdictions as the legislature may, from time to time, ordain and establish; and the superior and inferior courts sit twice in each county every year. The judges of the Superior Court are elected by the legislature for three years ; the justices of the inferior courts, and justices of the peace, are elected quadriennally by the people ; and the clerks of the superior and inferior courts biennially.
GOVERNMENT. George R. Gilmer, Governor ; term of office will expire in November, 1831; salary $3,000.
Senators, 76 ; Representatives, 140. Pay $4 a day each, and 4 cents a mile for travel. The President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives receive each $6 a day.
2,100 William Law, do. Eastern Circuit,
2,100 Augustin S. Clayton,
Oakmulgee Circuit, 2,100 Christopher B. Strong, do. Flint Circuit,
2,100 William B. Holt, do. Middle Circuit,
2,100 Walter T. Colquitt,
do. Chatahoochee Circuit, 2,100
Inferior Court. An Inferior Court is held in each county, each composed of five justices, elected by the people every four years. These courts possess the powers of Courts of Probate. The justices have no salary.
[State of the Banks as reported to the General Assembly, Novern
ber 3, 1819.]
Savannah, Milledgeville, Eatonton, and
$1,500,000 $1,097,852 $323,184 07 Macon, Planters' Bank,
566,000 229,191 119,926 961 Marine & Fire Insurance Bank,
177,756 204,342 125,165 35 Central Bank of Georgia, Milledgeville, 1,927,317 278,393
*212,356 81 Augusta Bank, Augusta, 600,000 365,625
188,032 00 Merchants' & Planters' Bank,
50,815 26 Augusta Insurance Bank,
110,000 61,605 38,953 80 Darien Bank, with branches at
Darien, 484,276 265,945 Milledgeville and Macon,
*26,650 36 Macon Bank,
54,054 10 Columbus Bank,
Total $5,832,349 |$2,719,356 $1,129,527 73 The “ Central Bank of Georgia ” is entirely the property of the state ; and the design of its incorporation was to afford means of letting out the surplus funds of the state, and also to place the debts due to the state in the hands of suitable agents (the directors) for collection. Its capital is composed of all the bank'stock held by the state, of all bonds, notes, debts, specialties, and judgments due to it; and all moneys arising from the sale of lands belonging to the state. Debts due to the state are collected by the bank; and persons owing the state give notes payable at the bank.
* The Bank of the United States has an Office of Discount and Deposit at Savannah.
The State Penitentiary is situated at Milledgeville, and on the 31st of De. cember, 1829, contained 92 convicts. The salary of the principal keeper is $1,438. The sum of about $5,000 was annually appropriated for the expenses of the institution before the year 1829, when it was put under a new management, and during the year 1829, it required no assistance from the state.
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT. According to a report made in 1828, “within the preceding 13 years the sum of $324,500 had been appropriated by the state for the purposes of internal improvement.” But the beneficial results which were expected, have not been realized; and it is stated that “all the reports as well as the omission to make them, go to show that those entrusted with the business had not manifested that fidelity, industry, and skill, which the
* Specie and bills of Banks that pay specie.
state had a right to expect from them.” In 1829 the system was changed; and the sum of $70,000 dollars was appropriated to purchase a supply of negroes, making, with what were before possessed, the number of 100. These were placed under the direction of two superintendents, by whom they were distributed into various parts of the state, to be employed under overseers in working on roads and rivers. According to the report of the Committee of Internal Improvement, the canal from the Savannah to the Ogeechee was expected to be completed in March, 1830, at the expense of about $ 165,000. The design is to extend the canal to the Alatamaha, making its length 72 miles.
The principal literary seminary in this state is Franklin College, or the University of Georgia, at Athens, which has funds to the amount of $136,000, of which $100,000 are invested in the Bank of the State of Georgia, which stock the state guaranties to yield 8 per cent. per annum.
The following statement relating to education is given by Mr. Sherwood in his “ Gazetteer of Georgia.” “ There are about 80 incorporated academies in this state, 64 of which have been brought into operation. The average number of pupils in each, is 47 = = 3,008. In the northern and southern sections of the state, there are probably 5 common schools in each county ; 40 counties ; 30 pupils each = 6,000. In the middle section, say 7 common schools in each county ; 25 counties 5,250. Total number of pupils in the academies and common schools 14,258.” The state possesses “ Academy and Poor School Funds” to a considerable amount. By an act of the legislature of 1792, each county academy was allowed to purchase the value of £1,000 of confiscated property : 1,000 acres of land in each county were granted for the support of schools ; and also a fund of $250,000, to be vested in stocks for the same purpose.
Two considerable tribes of Indians reside partly within the chartered limits of this state ; the Cherokees in the northwestern part, and the Creeks in the western. The Cherokees have made greater advances in the arts of civilized life than any other tribe of North American Indians. A proposition to remove them to the west of the Mississippi, which has been recently made, has excited a deep interest throughout the country; and it is to be hoped that such a course will be pursued as shall be consistent at once with justice and humanity,--with the welfare of the Cherokees, and the honor of the United States. The following notice of them is extracted from Mr. Sherwood's Gazetteer of Georgia, published 1827.
“ Within the last 20 years the Cherokees have rapidly advanced towards civilization. They now live in comfortable houses, chiefly in villages, and cultivate large farms. They raise large herds of cattle, which they sell for