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county appoints commissioners to manage and superintend the application of the share belonging to it. Within a year from October, 1828, 26,690 made applicatica to be educated, of whom 12,642 were received. The average cost of education was $9 per annum.


In the latter part of the fifteenth century, three different attempts were made, under the direction of the celebrated Sir Walter Raleigh, to establish settlements in North Carolina, which was then included within the limits of the country, that had been recently named Virginia. These were the first attempts made by the English to form colonies in North America : they all proved unsuccessful; and many years passed away before the attempt to settle the country was renewed.

The first permanent settlements were formed about the middle of the seventeenth century. North Carolina was long united under the same government with South Carolina : it was for many years called the County of Albemarle, or the County of Albemarle in Carolina, and about the beginning of the 19th century, the Colony of North Carolina. As early as 1715, it had a separate legislative assembly, at which time Charles Eden was Governor; and in the year 1727, it was formed into an entirely distinct province.

ROYAL GOVERNORS. Sir Richard Everard, appointed 1727 | Arthur Dobbs, appointed 1754 Gabriel Johnston, do. 1734 | William Tryon, do. 1766 Matthew Rowan, do. 1753 | Joseph Martin, do. 1773

GOVERNORS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION. Richard Caswell, elected 1777 | Benjamin Williams, elected 1807 Abner Nash, do. 1780 | David Stone,

do. 1808 Thomas Burke, do. 1782 Benjamin Smith, do. 1810 Alexander Martin, do. 1784 William Hawkins, do. 1811 Richard Caswell, do. 1785 William Miller,


1814 Samuel Johnston,

1788 John Branch,

do. 1817 Alexander Martin, do. 1790 Jesse Franklin, do.

1820 Richard D. Spaight, do. 1793 Gabriel Holmes, do. 1821 Samuel Ashe,

do. 1796 Hutchins G. Burton, do. 1824 Benjamin Williams, do. 1799 James Iredell,

do. 1827 James Turner, do. 1802 John Owen,

do. 1828 Nathaniel Alexander, do. 1805

OUTLINES OF THE CONSTITUTION. The Constitution of North Carolina was agreed to and resolved upon, by representatives chosen for that purpose, at Halifax, December 18, 1776.

The legislative authority is vested in a body, styled The General As. sembly, consisting of a Senate and a House of Commons, both elected annually by the people. One senator and two members of the House of Commons are sent from each of the 62 counties; and one of the latter also from each of the towns of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsborough, and Halifax.

The chief executive officer is the Governor, who is chosen annually by a joint vote of the two Houses ; and he is eligible for 3 years only in 6. He is assisted by an executive Council of seven members, chosen annually by a joint vote of the two Houses. In case of the death of the Governor, his duties devolve upon the Speaker of the Senate.

The judges of the Supreme and Superior Courts are appointed by a joint vote of the two Houses, and hold their offices during good behavior.

The Constitution grants the right of voting for members of the House of Commons to all freemen of the age of 21 years, who have been inhabitants of the state 12 months iinmediately preceding the election ; but in order to vote for a senator, a freeman must be possessed of a freehold of 50 acres of land.

The time of electing the members of the General Assembly is appointed by the legislature, and commonly takes place in the month of August.

The Assembly meets annually (at Raleigh), and usually on the second Monday in November ; and the governor is commonly chosen in December.


John Owen, Governor; term expires December, 1830; salary $2,000.

The members of both houses of the General Assembly receive $3 a day; the Speaker, $4.


Supreme Court

Leonard Henderson, Chief Justice,
John Hall,

Associate Justice,
Thomas Ruffin,


Salary. $2,500

2,500 2,500

Judges of the Superior or Circuit Court. William Norwood,

John R. Donnell, Willie P. Margum. J. J. Daniell, Robert Strange,

James Martin. The state is divided into six circuits, in which the court is held half yearly in the several counties ; so that each judge attends in about ten counties; and he is paid $90 for every court which he holds.

5 six} $1,600,000

BANKS IN 1830.

Capital. The State Bank of North Carolina, at Raleigh, having six

branches Cape Fear Bank, at Wilmington, with branches at Fayette

800,000 ville, Salem, Charlotte, and Hillsborough Newbern Bank, at Newbern, with branches at Raleigh,

800,000 Halifax, and Milton

The Bank of the United States has an Office of Discount and Deposit at Fayetteville.

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An Exhibit showing the situation of the State Bank of North Carolina,

November, 17, 1829. Specie

$70,494:52 Foreign notes and bills of exchange

233,172:95 Foreign bank credits


385,775.11 Bapk stock taken for Debt

28,340.00 Due from the state of North Carolina

83,906.11 Due from individuals, being notes discounted, &c.

2,290,278.19 Stock unpaid

225.00 Real estate in banking houses and lands taken for debt 183,522.87 Deficiencies of certain defaulting officers


$3,061,664:03 Capital stock

$1,598,775.00 Notes in circulation

730,413.75 Due to foreign banks

220,715.83 Profits reserved to cover bad debts, losses, &c.

249,773.59 Due for deposits, &c.

245,945.95 Internal bills and checks



EDUCATION. The principal literary institution in this state is the University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill. Academies are established at various places. The state has a Literary Fund, arising from Bank dividends, &c. amounting to upwards of $70,000. It is provided, that when this Fund shall have accumulated to a sufficient amount, the income of it shall be divided among. the several counties, in proportion to the free population, for the support of common schools.


IN 1663, the territory which now comprises the states of North and South Carolina and the greater part of Georgia, was granted by Charles II. to the Earl of Clarendon and seven others, who were constituted proprietors. The colony was named Carolina, and the government was vested

in the hands of the proprietors. The proprietary government lasted about fifty years, when it was abolished by the people; and the government was afterwards directed by governors appointed by the king.


Under the Proprietary Government. William Sayle,

appointed 1669 | Thomas Smith, appointed 1693 Joseph West,

do. 1671 Joseph Blake, do. 1694 John Yeamans, do. 1671 John Archdale,

do. 1695 Joseph West,

do. 1674 Joseph Blake, do. 1696 Joseph Morton, do. 1682 | James Moore,


1700 Joseph West, do. 1684 Nathaniel Johnson, do.

1703 Richard Kirk,

do. 1684 Edward Tynte, do. 1706 Robert Quarry, do. 1684 Robert Gibbes, do. 1710 Joseph Morton, do. 1685 Charles Craven, do. 1712 James Colleton, do. 1686 Robert Daniel, do. 1716 Seth Sothwell, do. 1690 Robert Johnson, do. 1719 Philip Ludwell, do. 1692 | James Moore,

do. 1719 Arthur Middleton, 1719.- The proprietary government abolished, and

a temporary Republic established.

Under the Regal Government. Francis Nicholson, appointed 1721 William H. Littleton, appo'ted 1756 Arthur Middleton, do. 1725 William Bull,

do. 1760 Robert Johnson, do. 1730 Thomas Boone,


1762 Thomas Broughton, do. 1735 William Bull,

do. 1763 William Bull, do. 1737 Charles Montague,

do. 1766 James Glen, 1743 William Bull,

do. 1769

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Under the Constitution. John Rutledge,

elected 1775 | James B. Richardson, elected 1802 Rawlins Lowndes, do. 1778 Paul Hamilton,

do. 1804 John Rutledge,

do. 1779 Charles Pinckney, do. 1806 John Matthews, do. 1782 John Drayton,

do. 1808 Benjamin Guerard, do. 1783 Henry Middleton, do. 1810 William Moultrie, do. 1785 Joseph Alston, do. 1812 Thomas Pinckney,

do. 1787 David R. Williams, do. 1814 Charles Pinckney,

do. 1789 | Andrew Pickens, do. 1816 Charles Pinckney, do. 1790 | John Geddes,

do. 1818 Arnoldus Vanderhorst, do. 1792 | Thomas Bennet, do. 1820 William Moultrie,

do. 1794 John L. Wilson, do. 1822 Charles Finckney,

do. 1796 Richard J. Manning, do. 1824 Edward Rutledge, do. 1798 John Taylor,

do. 1826 John Drayton, do. 1800 | Stephen D. Miller, do. 1828

OUTLINES OF THE CONSTITUTION. The first Constitution of this state was formed in 1775 ; the present Constitution was adopted in 1790.

The legislative authority is vested in a General Assembly, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives.

The Senate consists of 45 meinbers, who are elected by districts for four years, one half being chosen biennially.

The House of Representatives consist of 124 members, who are apportioned ainong the several districts, according to the number of white inhabitants and taxation; and are elected for two years. The representatives and one half of the senators are chosen every second year, on the second Monday in October and the day following.

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected for two years, by a joint vote of the Senate and House of Representatives, at every first meeting of the House of Representatives. A governor after having performed the duties of the office for two years, cannot be reëlected till after the expiration of four years.

At the time of the election of Governor, a Lieutenant Governor is chosen in the same manner, and for the same period.

The General Assembly meets annually (at Columbia), on the fourth Monday in November.

The Chancellor and Judges are appointed by the joint ballot of the Senate and House of Representatives, and hold their offices during good behavior.

The Constitution grants the right of suffrage to every free, white, male citizen, of the age of 21 years, having resided in the state two years previous to the day of election, and having been possessed of a freehold of 50 acres of land, or a town lot, at least six months before such election, or (not having such freehold or town lot) having been a resident in the election district in which he offers his vote, six months before said election, and having paid a tax the preceding year of 38. sterling towards the support of the government.

GOVERNMENT. Stephen D. Miller, Governor; term of office expires in December, 1830; salary, $3,900.

Thomas Williams, Lieutenant Governor.-No salary.
The 45 state senators and 124 representatives receive each $4 a day.


Judges of the Court of Appeals.
Charles J. Colcock, appointed 1824
David Johnson,



Salary $3,500

3,500 3,500

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