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Manhattan Co. N. York, 2,050,000|| Bank of Utica, Utica, 1,000,000 Bank of America, do. 2,000,000 Ontario Bank, Canandaigua, 500,000 Mechanics' Bank, do. 2,000,000 Bank of Orange Co. Goshen, 400,000 Del. & H. Canal Co. do. 1,500,000 Wash'n & War. Bk, Sandy Hill, 400,000 Merchants' Bank, do. 11,400,000 Bank of Newburgh, Newburgh, 400,000 City Bank,
1,200,000 Jefferson Co. Bank, Adams, 400,000 Union Bank, do. 1,000,000|| Bank of Auburn, Auburn,
400,000 Bank of New York, do. '950,000|| Bank of Geneva, Geneva, 400,000 Dry Dock Co. do. 700,000 Catskill Bank, Catskill,
350,000 Phenix Bank,
500,000 Long Island Bank, Brooklyn, 300,000 North River Bank, do. 500,000|| Bank of Monroe, Rochester, 300,000 Fulton Bank, do. 500,000|| Bank of Rochester,
250,000 Chem. & Man'g Bk,
500,000 Bk of Lansingburgh, Lansinburgh, 220,000 Tradesmen's Bank, do. 480,000 Bank of Chenango, Norwich, 200,000 Mech. & Farm. Bk, Albany, 610,000|| Central Bank, Cherry Valley 200,000 N. York State Bank, do. 369,600 Bank of Ithaca, Ithaca,
200,000 Commercial Bank, do. 300,000 Dutchess Co. Bank, Poughkeepsie, 150,000 Canal Bank.
do. 300,000|Ogdensburgh Bank, Ogdensburgh, 100,000 Bank of Albany, do. 240,000 Bank of Whitehall, Whitehall, 100,000 Bank of Troy,
550,000 Wayne Co. Bank, Palmyra, 100,000 Farmers' Bank, do. 390,000 Bank of Genesee,
100,000 Merch. & Mech. Bk, do. 300,000|| Lockport Bank, Lockport, 100,000
Some other banks have been chartered, and have recently gone, or are about going, into operation.
* The Bank of the United States has an office of Discount and Deposit at New York, with the sum of $2,500,000 assigned as its capital. Total amount of Bank Capital in the State in 1830 $27,754,600 Do. of Deposits
15,014,582 Do. of Bills in circulation
15,674,940 Do. of Specie
38 " 20 “
NEW YORK STATE CANALS.
Tolls in 1828. Erie Canal,
$9,027,456.95 $727,650.20 Champlain
1,179,871.05 107,757.08 Oswego do. 525,115.37
2,757.67 Cayuga & Seneca do.
279.70 Total Canal Debt of the State in January, 1830, $7,706,013. The Delaware and Hudson Canal, formed by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, extends from the Hudson to the Delaware, 60 miles; thence up the Delaware, 22 miles; thence up the valley of the Lacka. waxen to Honsdale, 24 miles; total length 106 miles : average cost about $15,000 a mile.
ONONDAGA SALT SPRINGS. On the borders of Onondaga Lake there are valuable saline springs, which are the property of the state, and from which salt, in large quantities, is
manufactured. The water yields salt at the rate of one bushel to 48 gallons. The salt is made at the villages of Salina, Syracuse, Liverpool, and Geddes.
Duties. Quantity of Salt inspected in 1826, 827,508 $ 68,825.33 Do. do.
1827, 983,410 126,942:41 Do. do.
1828, 1,160,888 131,959.32 Do. do.
NUMBER OF CLERGY in the State in 1819 and 1829, as stated in Williams's “ New York Ani
nual Register.” Presbyterians and Congregationalists, 1819, 328
1829, 989 Methodists,
129 Dutch Reformed,
13 Other Denominations,
1,229 Number of Attorneys and Counsellors in the state, in 1820, 1,2-18; in 1829, 1,686.
The principal literary seminaries in this state are Columbia College, in the city of New York; Union College, at Schenectady; Hamilton College, at Clinton ; Geneva College, at Genera; the Medical Colleges in New York city and at Fairfield; the Theological Seminaries in New York city, at Auburn, Hartwick, and Harnilton; the Polytechny, at Chittenango ; the Albany Academy, and about 50 other academies.
A statute of this state makes it the duty of the Superintendent of Common Schools, to present to the Legislature an annual report, containing a statement of the condition of the schools, estimates and accounts of the expenditures of the school moneys, plans for improvements, &c.
The Report presented to the Legislature by the Superintendent, in January, 1830, contains the following statements, namely; that the School Fund belonging to the state then amounted to $1,661,031.24 in stocks and other securities, and 869,178 acres of land; that the revenue actually received into the treasury, on account of this fund, in 1829, was $94,626-25; that there were, in the several towns in the state, 8,872 school districts, and of this number 8,292 had complied with the conditions of the statute, by having schools kept at least three months by an inspected teacher, and by making returns to the commissioners; that there were in the districts, from which reports had been received, 468,257 children over 5 and under 16 years of age; and that in the common schools of the same districts 480,041
scholars had been taught during the preceding year; that 8,292 schools had been kept open for the reception of scholars an average period of 8 months out of the 12; that during the year 1829, $214,840:14 had been paid to the several school districts which had made reports, of which sum $100,000 were paid from the state treasury, $102,934.66 were raised by a tax upon the several towns, and $11,905:48 were derived from local funds possessed by certain towns.
“ Our system of common school instruction,” says the Report, “is based upon the principle, that the state, or the School Fund, will pay only a share of the expense; and that the towns, by an assessment upon property, shall pay at least an equal share. In addition to this, and in order to enjoy the benefits of the public money, the inhabitants of each district are required to tax themselves for the erection of a school-house, and furnishing it with necessary fuel and appendages. In order to ascertain more fully the practical operation of the system, an additional column was annexed to the forms for school reports which accompanied the revised statute, requiring trustees to return the amount paid annually for teachers' wages, over and above the sum received from the state treasury and from the town tax. A few towns only made returns the first year; but the abstract of the present year contains returns from 729 towns and wards; showing a total amount paid by the patrons of the common schools, for teachers' wages, of $297,048.44; which, added to the public money, makes an aggregate of $511,878.58, paid for teachers' wages alone, in the common schools of the state. Thus it will be seen, that where the state, or the revenue of the School Fund, pays one dollar for teachers' wages, the inhabitant of the town pays by a tax on his town, and by voluntary contribution in his district, more than four dollars for the same object. This latter sum of four dollars is made up in the proportion of one dollar assessed upon property, to three dollars paid by the scholar,
“ The above statement is founded upon actual returns, and reliance may be placed in its accuracy. It exhibits only the sum paid for tuition, which constitutes very little more than half the expense of supporting the schools, as the following estimate will show. The average between the number of districts organized, and those which have made reports, is 8,582 ; this number of school-houses, at an average price of $ 200 each, would show a capital of $1,716, 400, vested in school-houses; the interest of which, at 6 per cent., would be
$ 102,984 00 “ Annual expense of books for 480,000 scholars, at 50 cents each, is
240,000 00 « Fuel 8,582 schools, at $10 each, is
85,820 00 “ Amount paid for teachers' wages, as appears by the abstract, 511,388 00 Estimating in same ratio for 40 towns, not returning amount besides public money
16,988 00 • Total expended annually $957,680 00
A Comparative View of the Returns of Common Schools, from 1816 to
VIII. NEW JERSEY. The territory comprised in this state was included in the patent for large tracts in America, which was granted by Charles II. to his brother the Duke of York, in 1664; and in the same year the Duke conveyed this territory to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret; and it then received the name of New Jersey. In 1665, Philip Carteret was apppointed the first governor of the province, which then contained only a few fainilies.
In 1676, New Jersey was divided into two provinces, East Jersey and West Jersey; the former continuing under the government of Carteret, and the latter being held, for a time, as a dependency of New York.
In 1632, East Jersey was transferred to William Penn and eleven associ. ates; and Robert Barclay, the celebrated author of the Apology for the Principles of the Quakers, was appointed governor.
In 1702, East and West Jersey were again united into one province, by the name of New Jersey, under the governinent of Lord Cornbury, who was also governor of New York; and this connection with New York, continued till 1738, when a separate government was instituted, which lasted till the American Revolution. Lewis Morris was the first royal governor, and William Temple Franklin, a son of the celebrated Dr. Franklin, the last.
ROYAL GOVERNORS. Lewis Morris, appointed 1738 Francis Bernard, appointed 1758 John Hamilton, President, 1746 Thomas Boone, do. 1760 John Reading, President, 1746 Josiah Hardy,
do. 1761 Jonathan Belcher, appointed 1747 Wm. Temple Franklin, do. 1763 John Reading, President, 1757
GOVERNORS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION. William Livingston, elected 1776 | Aaron Ogden,
elected 1812 William Patterson, do. 1791 William S. Pennington, do. 1813 Richard Howell,
1794 Mahlon Dickerson, do. 1815 Joseph Bloomfield, do. 1801 Isaac H. Williamson, do. 1817 John Lambert, (acting Gov.) 1802 Peter D. Vroom, Jun. do. 1829 Joseph Bloomfield, elected 1803
OUTLINES OF THE CONSTITUTION. The Constitution of New Jersey was formed in 1776 ; and no revision of it has since taken place, except that the Legislature has undertaken to explain its provisions in particular parts. The government is vested in a Governor, Legislative Council, and General Assembly; and these bodies united are styled the Legislature.
The members of the Legislative Council and of the General Assembly, are elected annually, on the second Tuesday in October.
The number of members of the Legislative Council is 14, one being elected by each county in the state. The General Assembly has consisted, for a number of years past, of 43 members ; but by a law enacted in 1829, seven additional members were added ; and it will hereafter consist of 50 members, apportioned among the counties as follows ;-Bergen 3, Essex 5, Morris 4, Sussex 3, Warren 3, Hutterdon 5, Somersett 3, Middlesex 4, Monmouth 4, Burlington 5, Gloucester 4, Salem 3, Cumberland 3, and Cape May 1.
The Legislature meets annually (at Trenton), on the fourth Tuesday in October.
The governor is chosen annually by a joint vote of the Council and Assembly, at their first joint meeting after each annual election. The Governor is President of the Council; and the Council also elect from their own body, at their first annual meeting, a vice-president, who acts in the place of the Governor in his absence. The Governor and Council form a Court of Appeals, in the last resort in all causes of law; and they possess the power of granting pardon to crim nals after condemnation.
The Constitution grants the right of suffrage to “all persons of full age who are worth 50 pounds proclamation money, clear estate in the same, and have resided within the county in which they claim to vote for twelve months immediately preceding the election.” [The Legislature has declared