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branches of government have performed their duty as guardians of the peo. ple; whether the public taxes have been justly laid and collected; in what manner the public moneys have been disposed of; and whether the laws have been duly executed.

GOVERNMENT

for the Year ending October, 1831. Samuel C. Crafts, of Craftsbury, Governor, Mark Richards,

Lieut. Governor,

Salary $750

Myron Clark,
Samuel Clark,
Wm. G. Hunter,
Robert Pierpoint,
Henry F. Jones,
Ezra Hoyt,

Bennington | Jedediah H. Harris, Orange
Windham John C. Thompson,

Chittended
Rutland George Worthington, Washington

do. Benj. F. Deming, Caledonia Windsor James Davis,

Franklin
Addison Ira H. Allen,

Orleans

Norman Williams
Benjamin Swan

of Woodstock, Secretary of State,
do.

Treasurer of the State,

Salary. $ 450

400

Robert B. Bates, Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Timothy Merrill, Clerk of the Assembly.

Salary

$375. The Counsellors and Representatives receive $ 1,50 a day, during attendance, and six cents a mile for travel in going and returning. The Lieut. Governor and Speaker of the House receive $2,50 a day.

JUDICIARY.

Judges of the Supreme Court.

Salary. Titus Hutchinson, Chief Justice,

$1,050 Charles K. Williams, Assistant Justice,

1,050 Stephen Royce,

do.

1,050 Ephraim Paddock,

do.

1,050 John C. Thompson

do.

1,050 The Supreme Court is a court for the determination of questions of law and petitions, and other matters not triable by jury. Each Judge receives, in addition to his salary, $125 per annum, for preparing reports of the decisions of the Supreme Court, to be published by the state.

The Legislature appoints annually two assistant judges in each county, who, with one judge of the Supreme Court, compose the County Court. The County Court has original and exclusive jurisdiction in cases triable by

jury, where the matter or thing in question exceeds the value of one hundred dollars; and in some cases where smaller damages are claimed. The assistant judges of this court have no salaries, but are paid by fees, which vary probably from $50 to $250 per annum, according to the amount of business doue in the thirteen different County Courts.

BANKS IN VERMONT.

The several items are taken from the Report submitted

lature, October 13, 1829.

the Legis

on hand.

Nominal Stock

Bills in Depos. Funds & Name.

circula & div. Property capital. paid in.

tion. due. Bank of Burlington,

$ 150,000 63,000 122,273 36,807,251,739 of Windsor,

100,000 80,000 81,050 176,175 of Brattleborough,

100,000 50,000 67,04422,415 148,687 of Rutland,

100,00060,000 125,003 33,993 221,548 of Montpelier,

100,000 30,000 52,831 4,141 91,472 of St. Albans,

100,000|20,000 64,631 9,577 95,526 of Caledonia,

100,000 30,000 25,506 11,617 69,056 of Vergennes,

100,000 30,000 40,218 5,277 77,091 of Orange County,

100,000 29,625 21,959 11,536 65,761 of Bennington,

100,000|40,000) 79,763| 4,073 128,031 The Bank of the United States has an Office of Discount and De. posite at Burlington.

EDUCATION.

There are two colleges in Vermont, at Burlington and Middlebury; medical schools at Burlington and Castleton; and about 20 incorporated academies in the state, where young men may be fitted for college.

Common schools are supported throughout the state. The money raised by the general law for the support of schools, at 3 per cent. on the Grand List (the valuation for taxes), would be about $51,119 42; and about as much more is supposed to be raised by school district taxes. The state has a Literary Fund, derived principally from a tax of 6 per cent. on the annual profits of the banks ; the amount on loan in September, 1829, was $23,763 32.

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IV. MASSACHUSETTS. THE territory of Massachusetts comprised, for many years after its first settlement, two separate colonies, styled the Plymouth Colony and the Colony of Massachusetts Bay.

The first English settlement that was made in New England, was formed by 101 persons who fled from religious persecution in England, landed at Plymouth on the 22d of December, 1620, and laid the foundation of Plymouth Colony

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The settlement of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay was commenced at Salem in 1628. Boston was settled in 1630.

The two colonies continued separate and elected their own governors annually till 1685-6, when they were deprived of their charters, and were placed under the government of Joseph Dudley, and afterwards of Sir Edmund Andros. In 1692, they were united into one colony under a new charter; and the governors were afterwards appointed by the king.

GOVERNORS.

Colonial Governors elected annually by the People.
Plymouth Colony.

Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
John Carver, elected 1620 John Winthrop, elected 1630

do. 1634 William Bradford,

1621 Thomas Dudley,
do.
John Haynes,

do. 1635 Edward Winslow, do.

1633
Henry Vane,

do. 1636 Thomas Prince,

do. 1634
John Winthrop,

do. 1637 William Bradford, do. 1635 Thomas Dudley,

do. 1640 do. Edward Winslow,

1641 1636 Richard Bellingham, do.

do. 1642 John Winthrop,

do. William Bradford,

1637

John Endicott, do. 1644 Thomas Prince, do. 1638

Thomas Dudley,

do. 1645 William Bradford, do. 1639

John Winthrop,

do. 1646 Edward Winslow, do. 1644 John Endicott,

do. 1649 William Bradford, do.

1645 Richard Bellingham, do. 1654

John Endicott, do. 1655 Thomas Frince, do. 1657

Richard Bellingham,

do. 1665 Josiah Winslow, do. 1673

John Leverett,

do. 1673 Thomas Hinckley, do.

1680 | Simon Bradstreet,

do. 1679

After the Dissolution of the First Charter. [Joseph-Dudley, appointed President of New England, Oct. 8, 1685.

Sir Edmund Andros assumes the government of New England, Dec. 20, 1686—is deposed by the people, April 18, 1689.] Thomas Hinckley, elected 1689 | Simon Bradstreet, elected 1689

Governors of Massachusetts under the Second Charter, appointed

by the King. Appointed.

Appointed Sir William Phips,

1692 William Taylor, Lieut. Gov. 1715 Wm. Stoughton, Lieut. Gov. 1694 Samuel Shute,

1716 Earl of Bellamont,

1699 William Duromer, Lieut. Gov. 1723 Wm. Stoughton, Lieut. Gov. 1700 William Burnet,

1728 Joseph Dudley,

1702 | William Dummer, Lieut. Gov. 1729

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Appointed.

Appointed.
William Taylor, Lieut. Gov. 1730 Thomas Hutchinson, Lt. Gov. 1760
Jonathan Belcher,
1730 Francis Bernard,

1760 William Shirley,

1741 Thomas Hutchinson, Lt. Gov. 1770 Spencer Phips, Lieut. Gov. 1749 Thomas Hutchinson,

1770 Thomas Pownall, 1757 | Thomas Gage,

1774 [In October, 1774, a Provincial Congress assumed the government, and in July, 1775, elected counsellors ; in 1780, the Constitution was formed.]

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May;

The Constitution of this state was formed in 1780, and amended in 1821.

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, which together are styled The General Court of Massachusetts. The members of the House of Representatives are elected annually in

and they must be chosen ten days at least before the last Wednesday of that month. Every corporate town having 150 ratable polls may elect one representative, and another for every additional 225 ratable polls.

The Senate consists of 40 members, who are chosen, by districts, annually, on the first Monday in April.

The supreme executive magistrate is styled The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and has the title of “ His Excellency." The Governor is elected annually by the people on the first Monday of April, and at the same time a Lieutenant Governor is chosen, who has the title of “ His Honor.” The Governor is assisted in the executive part of government by a Council of nine members, who are chosen by the joint ballot of the Senators and Representatives, from the Senators; and in case the persons elected, or any of them, decline the appointment, the deficiency is supplied from among the people at large.

The General Court meets (at Boston) on the last Wednesday of May, and also in January.

The right of suffrage is granted to every male citizen, 21 years of age and upwards (excepting paupers and persons under guardianship), who has resided within the commonwealth one year, and within the town or distriet

in which he may claim a right to vote, six calendar months next preceding any election, and who has paid a state or county tax, assessed upon him within two years next preceding such election; and also every citizen who may be by law exempted from taxation, and who may be, in all other respects qualified as above mentioned.

The judiciary is vested in a Supreme Court, a Court of Common Pleas, and such other courts as the Legislature may establish. The judges are appointed by the Governor by and with the advice and consent of the Council, and hold their offices during good behavior.

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Government for the Year ending on the last Tuesday in May, 1831.
EXECUTIVE.

Salary.
Levi Lincoln,
of Worcester, Governor,

$3,666 67 Thomas L. Winthrop, of Boston,

Lieut. Governor,

533 33 Edward D. Bangs, of Boston, Sec. of the Common'th, 2,000 00 Joseph Sewall, of Boston, Treas. & Receiver Gen. 2,000 00 William H. Sumner, of Boston, Adjutant General, 1,500 00

Counsellors. Samuel C. Allen, Nathan Brooks, John Endicott, Russell Freeman, Aaron Hobart,

Residence.

Counsellors.
Greenfield. George Hull,
Concord. James Savage,
Dedham. Joseph E. Sprague,
N. Bedford. Bezaleel Taft, Jun.
E. Bridgewater.

Residence
Sandisfield.
Boston.
Salem.
Uxbridge.

LEGISLATURE.

The Senate.

Samuel Lathrop, President of the Senate. Francis C. Gray,

Solomon Lincoln, Jun. Plymouth Alexander H. Everett,

Charles J. Holmes,

District. Thomas Motley, Suffolk

Barnstable

Elisha Pope, Charles Wells, District

District, Pliny Cutler,

Christopher Webb,

Norfolk Daniel Baxter,

Henry A. S. Dearborn,

District. Amos Spalding,

Moses Thacher, John Merrill,

Elijah Ingraham,

Bristol
William Thorndike, Essex Howard Lothrop,

District,
James H. Duncan, District. John A. Parker,
Stephen White,

John W. Lincoln,
Stephen Phillips,

Lovell Walker,

Worcester Benj. F. Varnum,

David Wilder,

District. Asahel Stearns,

Samuel Mixter,

Middlesex John Locke,

William S. Hastings, Francis Winship,

District.

Oliver Warner, Hampshire Thomas J. Goodwin,

John Warner,

District.

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