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The principal literary seminaries in Maine are Bowdoin College at Brunswick; Waterville College at Waterville ; the Bangor Theological Seminary at Bangor; the Gardiner Lyceum at Gardiner, which was established “for the purpose of giving to farmers and mechanics, such a scientific education as may enable them to become skilful in their professions"; the Marine Wesleyan Seminary at Readfield; and 29 incorporated academies.

Every town is required by law to raise annually, for the support of common schools, a sum equal at least to 40 cents for each person in the town, and to distribute this sum among the several school districts according to the number of scholars in each. According to the reports made in 1826, there were, in the state, 2,499 school districts; 137,931 children between the ages of 4 and 21 ; of which 101,325 usually attended school ; the sum required by law to be annually raised, $119,334; annual expenditure $137,878,57.


The earliest grant of the territory of New Hampshire was made in 1622, to John Mason and Ferdinando Gorges; and the first settlements were begun, in 1623, at Dover and Portsmouth.

In 1641, the settlements in New Hampshire voluntarily put themselves under the government of the colony of Massachusetts, and were allowed to send representatives to the General Court at Boston, till 1679, when a new government was formed, and New Hampshire was made a separate province.

In 1686, New Hampshire was placed, together with the rest of New England, under the government of Sir Edmund Andros; in 1689, the union with Massachusetts was revived, and continued till 1692. From 1699 to 1702, it was united with Massachusetts and New York; in 1702, it was again united with Massachusetts, and so continued till 1741, when a final separation took place.


Under the Royal Government. John Cutt, President, 1680 Walter Barefoot, Dep. Gov. 1685 Richard Waldron, do. 1681 | Joseph Dudley, President, 1686 Edward Cranfield, Lieut. Gov. 1682

In 1686 under the government of Sir Edmund Andros.

In 1689 the union with Massachusetts revived. John Usher, Lieut. Gov. 1692 | Samuel Allen, Governor, 1698 William Partridge, do. 1697

in 1699 united with Massachusetts and New York.

In 1702 united with Massachusetts.
Benning Wentworth, Gov. 1741 | John Wentworth,

Gov. 1767 The English government terminated in 1775, and in 1776 a temporary government was formed, which continued during the war; Meshech Weare being annually elected President.

Presidents under the Constitution of 1784.
Meshech Weare,

elected 1784
John Langdon,

elected John Langdon, do. 1785 John Sullivan,

do. John Sullivan, do. 1786 Josiah Bartlett,

1788 1789 1790


Governors under the Constitution of 1792.
Josiah Bartlett, elected 1792 Samuel Bell,
John Taylor Gilman, do. 1794 Levi Woodbury,
John Langdon,

do. 1805 David L. Morril, Jeremiah Smith, do. 1809 Benjamin Pierce, John Langdon,

do. 1810

John Bell,
William Plumer, do. 1812 Benjamin Pierce,
John Taylor Gilman, do. 1813 Matthew Harvey,
William Plumer, do. 1816

elected 1819 do. 1823 do. 1824 do. 1827 do. 1828 do. 1829 do. 1830


A Constitution was established in 1784; and in 1792, this Constitution was altered and amended, by a convention of delegates held at Concord, and is now in force.

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, which, together, are styled The General Court of New Hampshire.

Every town, or incorporated township, having 150 ratable polls, may send one representative; and for every 300 additional polls, it is entitled to an additional representative.

The Senate consists of 12 members, who are chosen by the people in districts.

The executive power is vested in a Governor and a Council, which consists of five members.

The governor, council, senators, and representatives are all elected annually, by the people, on the second Tuesday in March; and their term of service commences on the first Wednesday in June.

The General Court meets annually (at Concord) on the first Wednesday in June.

The right of suffrage is granted to every male inhabitant of 21 years of age, excepting paupers and persons excused from paying taxes at their own request.

The judiciary power is vested in a Superior Court and a Court of Com. mon Pleas. The judges are appointed by the governor and council, and hold their offices during good behavior, but not beyond the age of 70 years.

Government for the Year ending on the first Tuesday in June, 1831.

EXECUTIVE. Matthew Harvey, of Hopkinton, Governor," Salary $1,200,

Districts. Francis N. Fisk of Concord, Counsellor for Rockingham. Thomas E. Sawyer of Dover,

do. for Strafford. Jesse Bowers of Dunstable,

do. for Hillsborough. Joseph Healy of Washington,

do. for Cheshire Stephen P. Webster of Haverhill,

do. for Grafton. Dudley S. Palmer

of Concord, Secretary of State, Salary $800 William Pickering do.


Do. 600


Residence. 1. John F. Parrot, Portsmouth. 7. William Bixby, Francestown. 2. Jacob Freeze, Deerfield. 8. Benjamin Evans, Warner. 3. Frederic G. Stark, Manchester. 9. Levi Chamberlain, Fitzwilliam. 4. Joseph M. Harper, Canterbury. 10. Eleazar Jackson, Jr. Cornish. 5. Henry B. Rust, Wolfeborough. 11. Elijah Miller, Hanover. 6. Ezekiel Wentworth, Ossipee. 12. Samuel Cartland, Haverhill.

Joseph M. Harper, President of the Senate. Samuel C. Webster, of Plymouth, Speaker of the House of Representa

tives. Pay of the counsellors, senators, and representatives, $2,00 a day, for attendance during the session of the legislature, and 10 cents a mile for travel: of the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, also the counsellors (when in service, except during the session of the legislature,) $2,50 a day.

Superior Court.

Appointed. Salary. William M. Richardson of Chester, Chief Justice, 1816 $1,400 Samuel Green

of Concord, Associate Justice, 1819 1,200 John Harris of Hopkinton, do.

1823 1,200 George Sullivan

of Exeter, Attorney General, 800 Court of Common Pleas.

Appointed. Salary. Arthur Livermore, of Campton, Chief Justice, 1825 $1,200 Timothy Farrar, of Hanover, Associate Justice, do. 1,000 Josiah Butler, of Deerfield,


do. 1,000

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Bills in

stock paid circula- Specie in


tion. New Hampshire Bank, Portsmouth, $ 165,500 60,764 7,578 23 N. Hampshire Union Bank,

150,000 24,514 6,579 00 Rockingham Bank,


100,000 16,034 6,571 00 Portsmouth Bank,


100,000 26,623 20,814 71 Piscata qua Bank,


160,900 56,419 19,713 03 Commercial Bank,


100,000 16,000 5,249 48 Exeter Bank,


100,000 26,401 10,620 67 Derry Bank,


100,000 61,171|42,837 96 Strafford Bank,


100,000 28,018 4,825 22 Dover Bank,


125,000 15,774 4,335 70 Winnipiseogee Bank, Meredith, 84,000 34,737 19,131 35 Concord Bank,

Concord, 100,000 37,590 10,946 44 Merrimack Co. Bank,


100,000 35,012 32,057 53 Farmers' Bank,

Amherst, 65,000 32,489 8,694 27 Manufacturers' Bank,

83,265 48,063 22,486 29 Cheshire Bank,


100,000 51,365 11,236 41 Connecticut River Bank, Charlestown, 60,000 50,516 12,076 40 Claremont Bank,

Claremont, 60,000 28,465 7,816 79 Grafton Bank,

Haverhill, 100,000 34,405 43,413 88 Pemigewasset Bank, Plymouth, 50,000 17,479 3,912 69 Lebanon Bank,

Lebanon, 100,000 35,705 10,983 49 The Bank of the United States has an office of Discount and Deposit at Portsmouth

EDUCATION. New Hampshire has a college at Hanover, styled Dartmouth College, with which a medical school is connected; a small academical theological institution at New Hampton; and about 30 incorporated academies, of which the oldest and best endowed is Phillips Academy at Exeter.

Common schools are established throughout the state, and for their support a sum, amounting, each year since 1818, to $90,000, is annually raised by a separate tax. The state has a Literary Fund amounting to $64,000, formed by a tax of one half per cent. on the capital of the banks. The proceeds of this fund, and also an annual income of $9,000 derived from a taxon banks, are appropriated to aid the support of schools.

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FORT DUMMER, in the southeast part of Vermont, was built in 1724;
and Bennington, the oldest town in the state, was chartered in 1749, by
Benning Wentworth, governor of New Hampshire.

The territory of Vermont was originally claimed both by New Hampshire and New York ; and its political condition was, for a considerable time,

unsettled; but the people preferring to have a separate government, formed a Constitution in 1777, under which a government was organized in March, 1788; and in 1791, Vermont was admitted into the Union.


Thomas Chittenden, elected 1778 | Martin Chittenden,
Moses Robinson, do. 1789 Jonas Galusha,
Thomas Chittenden, do. 1790 Richard Skinner,
Isaac Tichenor,

do. 1797 C. P. Vau Ness, Israel Smith,

do. 1807 | Ezra Butler, Isaac Tichenor,

do. 1808 Samuel C. Crafts, Jonas Galusha,


elected 1813

do. 1915 do... 1820 do. 1823 do. 1826 do. 1828


The first Constitution of this state was formed in 1777 ; the one now in operation was adopted on the 4th of July, 1793.

The legislative power is vested in a single body, a House of Representatives, elected annually, on the first Tuesday in September, every town in the state being entitled to send one representative. The representatives meet (at Montpelier) annually on the second Thursday of the October succeeding their election, and are styled The General Assembly of the State of Vermont.

The executive power is vested in a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and a Council of 12 persons, who are all chosen annually by the freemen on the first Tuesday in September, and their term of office commences on the second Thursday in October. They are empowered to commission all officers; to sit as judges to consider and determine on impeachments ; to prepare and lay before the General Assembly such business as shall appear to them necessary; and have power to revise and propose amendments to the laws passed by the House of Representatives.

The Constitution grants the right of suffrage to every man of the full age of 21 years, who has resided in the state for the space of one whole year, next before the election of representatives, and is of quiet and peaceable behavior.

The judiciary power is vested in a Supreme Court consisting of three judges; and of a County Court of three judges for each county. The judges of the Supreme, County, and Probate Courts, sheriffs, and justices of the peace, are elected annually by the General Assembly.

A Council of Censors, consisting of 13 persons, are chosen every seven years (first elected in 1799) on the last Wednesday in March, and meet on the first Wednesday in June. Their duty is to inquire whether the Constitution has been preserved inviolate; whether the legislative and executive

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