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Residence. Jonathan Jennings, Charleston. John Test,


Joseph Duncan, Brownsville.

Spencer Pettis, Fayette.



Mordecai Bartley, Mansfield.
Joseph H. Crane, Dayton.
William Creighton, Jr. Chillicothe.
James Findlay,

John M. Goodenow, Steubenville.
William W. Irwin, Lancaster.
William Kennon, St. Clairsville.
William Russell, West Union.
James Shields, Dick's Mills.
William Stanberry, Newark.
John Thompson,

Joseph Vance, Urbanna.
Samuel F. Vinton, Gallipolis.
Elisha Whittlesey, Canfield.

Indiana. Ratliff Boon,



Michigan Territory.
John Biddle,

Arkansas Territory.
Ambrose H. Sevier, Little Rock.

Florida Territory.
Joseph M. White, Monticello.

Officers of the House of Representatives.

M. St. C. Clarke, Clk of House, $3,000 J. Oswald Dunn, Sergeant at
Samuel Burch, Chief Clerk, 1,800

Arms, $1,500 John T. Frost, Clerk, 1,500 Benjamin Burch, Door-keeper, 1,500 Benjamin Sprigg,

do. 1,500 Overton Carr, As't. Door-keep. 1,450 Brooke M. Berry,

do. 1,500 Rev. Reuben Post, Chaplain, 500 Thomas Patterson,

do. 1,500 Wm. J. McCormick, Post MasNoah Fletcher, do. 1,500

ter, $3 per day, Robert N. Johnson, do. 1,500 James Barron, Messenger,



VIII. THE JUDICIARY. The Chief Justices and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the

United States since 1789, with the dates of their appointment, as stated in the Journals of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate."

Chief Justices. John Jay,

N. Y. Sept. 26, 1789. Oliver Elsworth, Mass. March 4, 1796. John Rutledge,* S. C. July 1, 1795.

John Jay,t.

N. Y. Dec. 19, 1800. William Cushing, Mass. Jan. 27, 1796. John Marshall,

Jan. 27, 1801. Associate Justices. John Rutledge, S. C. Sept. 26, 1789. Brockh. Livingston, N. Y. Dec. 17, 1806. William Cushing, Mass. do. do. Thomas Todd,

Va. March 2, 1807. R. H. Harrison, Md. do. do. Levi Lincoln,t Mass. Jan. 3, 1811. James Wilson, Pa. do. do. John Q. Adams,t

Feb. 22, 1811. John Blair,

Va. do. do. Gabriel Davall, Md. Nov. 18, 1811. James Iredell, N. C. Feb. 10, 1790. Joseph Story,

Mass. do. do. Thomas Johnson, Md. Nov.

7, 1791.

Smith Thompson, N. Y. Dec. 9, 1823. William Patterson, N. J. March 4, 1793. Robert Trimble,


May 9, 1826. Samuel Chase, Md. Jan. 27, 1796. John McLean, Ohio. March 7, 1829. Bush. Washington, Va. Dec. 20, 1798. Henry Baldwin, Pa. Jan.

6, 1830. William Johnson, 1 s. C. March 24, 1804.

* Appointed by the President, July 1, 1795; nominated to the Senate Dec. 10, 1795; but not confirmed.

† Declined the appointment.

The judicial power of the United States is vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as Congress may, from time to time, establish. The present judicial establishment of the United States, consists of a Supreme Court, thirty-one District Courts, and seven Circuit Courts, which are thus organized: the Supreme Court is composed of one Chief Justice, and six Associate Justices, who hold a court in the city of Washington, annually ; besides which, each of these justices attends in a certain circuit, comprising two or more districts, appropriated to each, and, together with the judge of the district, composes a Circuit Court, which is held in each district of the circuit.

The District Courts are held, respectively, by the District Judge alone. Appeals are allowed from the District to the Circuit Courts in cases where the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum or value of fifty dollars, and from the Circuit Courts to the Supreme Court, in cases where the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum or value of two thousand dollars; and in some cases, where the inconvenience of attending a court by a justice of the Supreme Court is very great, the District Courts are invested with Circuit Court powers. Each state is one district, for the purpose of holding District and Circuit Courts therein, with the exception of New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Alabama, each of which is divided into two Districts. There are, besides, Territorial Courts, which are temporary, and lose that character whenever a Territory becomes a State. In addition to the District Court for the District of Columbia, there is a Circuit Court for that District, which exercises, under the authority of Congress, common law and equity jurisdiction similar to that of the County Courts of Maryland and Virginia.

Each court has a clerk, a public attorney, or prosecutor, and a marshal; all of whom are appointed by the President of the United States, with the exception of the clerks, who are appointed by the courts. The compensation of the judges is fixed by law; that of the clerks, attorneys, and marshals, consists of fees, and in a few instances, as it regards attorneys, and marshals, of a yearly salary of about 200 dollars. It is very difficult to ascertain the amount per annum of the fees received in each case, as the payment of them is frequently procrastinated, and in some cases they are entirely lost. The appointments are made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

By an act of Congress of the 15th of May, 1820, district attorneys are to be appointed for four years only, removable at pleasure. Marshals have always held their offices for four years, removable at pleasure, in pursuance of the 27th section of an act of the 24th of September, 1789; so that the Marshals who have held their places from an earlier date, have been recommissioned many times. The judges hold their offices during good behavior, and can be removed only on impeachment.


Salary: John Marshall, Richmond, Va. Chief Justice, $5,000 William Johnson, Charleston, SC Associate Justice,

4,500 Gabriel Duvall, Marietta, Md.


4,500 Joseph Story, Cambridge, Mass.


4,500 Sinith Thompson, New York, N. Y.


4,500 John McLean, Cincinnati, Ohio,


4,500 Henry Baldwin, Pittsburg, Pa.


4,500 John McP. Berrien, Washington, Ca. Attorney General, 3,500 William T. Carroll, do.


Fees, &c. Tench Ringgold,


Marshal. The Supreme Court of the United States has exclusive jurisdiction of all controversies of a civil nature where a state is a party, except between a state and its citizens; and except also between a state and citizens of other states, or aliens; in which latter case it has original, but not exclu. sive, jurisdiction. It has, exclusively, all such jurisdiction of suits or proceedings against ambassadors, or other public ministers or their domestics, or domestic servants, as a court of law can have or exercise consiste ently with the law of nations; and original, but not exclusive, jurisdiction of all suits brought by ambassadors, or other public ministers, in which a consul, or vice-consul, is a party. The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction from final decrees and judgments of the Circuit Courts in cases where the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum or value of 2,000 dollars, and from final decrees and judgments of the highest courts of the several states in certain cases, as hereinafter mentioned. It has power to issue writs of prohibition to the District Courts, when proceeding as courts of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, and writs of mandamus, in cases warranted by the principles and usages of law, to any courts appointed, or persons holding office, under the authority of the United States. -The trial of issues in fact in the Supreme Court, in all actions at law against citizens of the United States, is by jury.

A final judgment or decree in any suit, in the highest court of law or equity of a state in which a decision in the suit could be had, where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of, or an authority exercised under the United States, and the decision is against their validity; or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under any State, on the ground of their being repugnant to the constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of such their validity; or where is drawn in question the construction of any clause of the constitution, or of a treaty or statute of, or commission held under the United States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege, or exemption, specially set up or claimed by either party, under such clause of the constitution, treaty, statute, or commission ; may be reexamined, and reversed or affirmed, in the Supreme Court of the United

States, upon a writ of error, the citation being signed by the Chief Justice, or Judge, or Chancellor, of the Court rendering or passing the judgment or decree complained of, or by a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, in the same manner, and under the same regulations, and the writ has the same effect, as if the judgment or decree complained of had been rendered or passed in a Circuit Court: and the proceeding upon the reversal is also the same, except that the Supreme Court, instead of remanding the cause for a final decision, may, at their discretion, if the cause shall have been once remanded before, proceed to a final decision of the same, and award execution. But no other error can be assigned or regarded as a ground of reversal in any such case, than such as appears on the face of the record, and immediately respects the before-mentioned questions of validity or construction of the said constitution, treaties, statutes, commissions, or authorities, in dispute.

CIRCUIT COURTS. The Circuit Courts of the United States have original cognizance, concurrent with the courts of the several states, of all suits of a civil nature, at common law, or in equity, where the matter in dispute exceeds, exclusive of costs, the sum or value of 500 dollars, and the United States are plaintiffs or petitioners, or an alien is a party, or the suit is between a citizen of the state where the suit is brought and a citizen of another state. They have exclusive cognizance of all crimes and offences cognizable under the authority of the United States (except where the laws of the United States otherwise direct), and concurrent jurisdiction with the District Courts of the crimes and offences cognizable therein. But no person can be arrested in one district for trial in another, in any civil action, before a Circuit or District Court. No civil suit can be brought, before either of said courts, against an inhabitant of the United States, hy any original process, in any other district than that whereof he is an inhabitant, or in which he shall be found at the time of serving the writ: and no Dis. trict or Circuit Court has cognizance of any suit to recover the contents of any promissory note, or other chose in action, in favor of an assignce, unless a suit might have been prosecuted in such court to recover the said contents if no assignment had been made, except in cases of foreign bills of exchange.

The Circuit Courts have appellate jurisdiction from final decrees and judgments of the District Courts in all cases where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of fifty dollars. They also have jurisdiction of certain cases, which may be removed into them before trial from the State Courts. But no District Judge (sitting in a Circuit Court) can give a vote in any case of appeal, or error, from his own decision; but may assign the reasons of such his decision. The trial of issues in fact in the Circuit Courts in all suits, except those of equity and of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, is by jury.


The District Courts of the United States, have, exclusively of the courts of the several states, cognizance of all crimes and offences that are cognizable under the authority of the United States, committed within their respective districts, or upon the high seas, where no other punishment than whipping, not exceeding thirty stripes, a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, or a term of imprisonment not exceeding six months, is to be inflicted, and also have exclusive original cognizance of all civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, including all seizures under laws of impost, navigation, or trade, of the United States, where the scizures are made on waters which are navigable from the sea by vessels of ten or more tons' burden, within their respective districts, as well as upon the high seas, saving to suitors, in all cases, the right of a common law remedy, where the common law is competent to give it; and also have exclusive original cognizance of all seizures on land or other waters than as aforesaid, made, and of all suits for penalties and forfeitures incurred, under the laws of the United States. And they also have cognizance, concurrent



N. Hampshire,
Rhode Island,

N. Dist.

W. Dist. New Jersey,

W. Dist. (Pa.

E. Dist. Delaware, Maryland,

E. Dist. Va.

W. Dist. North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,

S. Dist. Ala.

N. Dist. Mississippi,

E. Dist. La.

W. Dist.

E. Dist.

W. Dist.



2,500. {||Joseph Scoti,

DISTRICT COURTS :-JUDGES, ATTORNEYS. Judges. Residence. Salary. Attorneys. Pay. Ashur Ware, Portland, |$1,800. Ether Shepley, $200 & fees.

1,000. D. M. Durell, 200 do. Elijah Paine, Williamstown, 1,200. Daniel Kellogg,

200 do. John Davis, Boston,

2,500. Andrew Dunlap, Fees, &c. John Pitman, Providence, 1,500. R. W. Green,

200 & fees. William Bristol, New Haven, 1,500. Asa Child,

200 do. A. Conkling, Albany,

2,000. Sam. Beardsley,

200 do. New York, S. R. Betts,

3,500. J. A. Hamilton,

200 do. William Rossel, Mt. Holly, 1,500. G. D. Wall,

200 do. Jos. Hopkinson, Philadelphia, 2,500.

G. M. Dallas,

Wm. Wilkins, Pittsburg, 1,800. A. Brackenridge, 200 & fees.
Willard Hall, Belmont, 1,500. Geo. Read, Jun.

200 do.
Elias Glenn,
Baltimore, 2,000.

N. Williams,

Fees, &c.
P. P. Barbour,

1,800. R. Stannard,

200 & fees. Alex. Caldwell, Clarksburg, 1,600. W. A. Harrison, 200 do. H. Potter,

Raleigh, 2,000. T. P. Devereaux, 200 do. Thomas Lee, Charleston, 2,500.

John Gadsden,

Fees, &c.
Jer. Cuyler,
Savannah, 2,500. M. H.M'Allister, 200 & fees.

200 do. Wm. Crawford, Mobile,

200 do. Peter Randolph, Natchez, 2,000. George Adams, 200 do.

John Slidell,

600 do. S. H. Harper, New Orleans,

3,000. }

B. F. Linton, 200 do. J. McNairy, Nashville, 1,500.

J. A. M'Kinney, 200 do

J. Collinsworth, 200 do. John Boyle, Harrodsburg, 1,500. J. S. Smith, 200 do. J. W. Campbell, West Union, 1,000. Samuel Herrick, 200 do. Benj. Parke, Salem,


Samuel Judah, 200 do.
Nathaniel Pope, Vandalia,

S. McRoberts,
James H. Peck,

St. Louis, 1,200. George Shannon, 200 do.
W.Woodbridge, Detroit, 1,200.
Solomon Sibley, do.


Daniel Leroy, 200 do. H. Chapman,


1,200. James D. Doty, do.

1,200. Benj. Johnson, P. of Arkansas, 1,200. T. P. Eskridge,

do. 1,200.

S. C. Roane, 200 do. Wm. Trimble,

do. 1,200.
J. W. Bates,

do. 1,200.
J. L. Smith, St. Augustine, 1,500. Th. Douglass,

200 do. T. Randal, Tallahassee, 1,500.

J. G. Ringgota,

20 do. H.M.Brackenridge, Pensacola, 1,500. B. D. Wright,

20 do. James Webb, Webbville, 1,500. J. K. Campbell, 200 do.

Territory of


Territory of Ar


East Florida, Middle Florida, West Florida, South Florida,

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